Western Civilization: A Concise History – Volume 2

Western Civilization: A Concise History​ is an Open Educational Resource textbook covering the history of Western Civilization from approximately 8,000 BCE to 2017 CE. It is available in three volumes covering the following time periods and topics:

  • Volume 1: from the origins of civilization in Mesopotamia c. 8,000 BCE through the early Middle Ages in Europe c. 1,000 CE. Volume 1 covers topics including Mesopotamia,Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome, the Islamic caliphates, and the early European Middle Ages.
  • Volume 2: from the early Middle Ages to the French Revolution in 1789 CE. Volume 2covers topics including the High Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the European conquest of the Americas, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment.
  • Volume 3: from the Napoleonic era to the recent past. Volume 3 covers topics including the Industrial Revolution, the politics of Europe in the nineteenth century, modernEuropean imperialism, the world wars, fascism, Nazism, and the Holocaust, the postwar era, the Cold War, and recent developments in economics and politics.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: The Crusades and the High Middle Ages
  • Chapter 2: The Crises of the Middle Ages
  • Chapter 3: The Renaissance: Political and Social Setting
  • Chapter 4: The Renaissance: Art and Learning
  • Chapter 5: Politics in the Renaissance Era
  • Chapter 6: European Exploration and Conquest
  • Chapter 7: The Protestant Reformation
  • Chapter 8: The Catholic Reformation
  • Chapter 9: Religious Wars
  • Chapter 10: Absolutism
  • Chapter 11: Trade Empires and Early Capitalism
  • Chapter 12: The Scientific Revolution
  • Chapter 13: The Enlightenment
  • Chapter 14: The Society of Orders
  • Chapter 15: The French Revolution

About the Contributors


Dr. Christopher Brooks


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