Solid State Electronic Devices by Ben Streetman PDF
Solid State Electronic Devices is intended for undergraduate electrical engineering students or for practicing engineers and scientists interested in updating their understanding of modern electronics
One of the most widely used introductory books on semiconductor materials, physics, devices and technology, Solid State Electronic Devices aims to: 1) develop basic semiconductor physics concepts, so students can better understand current and future devices; and 2) provide a sound understanding of current semiconductor devices and technology, so that their applications to electronic and optoelectronic circuits and systems can be appreciated. Students are brought to a level of understanding that will enable them to read much of the current literature on new devices and applications.
Teaching and Learning Experience
This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. It will help:
- Provide a Sound Understanding of Current Semiconductor Devices: With this background, students will be able to see how their applications to electronic and optoelectronic circuits and systems are meaningful.
- Incorporate the Basics of Semiconductor Materials and Conduction Processes in Solids: Most of the commonly used semiconductor terms and concepts are introduced and related to a broad range of devices.
- Develop Basic Semiconductor Physics Concepts: With this background, students will be better able to understand current and future devices.
Preface – Solid State Electronic Devices
This book is an introduction to semiconductor devices for undergraduateelectrical engineers, other interested students, and practicing engineers andscientists whose understanding of modern electronics needs updating.
The book is organized to bring students with a background in sophomore physics to a level of understanding which will allow them to read much of the current literature on new devices and applications.
An undergraduate course in electronic devices has two basic purposes: (1) to GOALS provide students with a sound understanding of existing devices, so that their studies of electronic circuits and systems will be meaningful; and (2) to develop the basic tools with which they can later learn about newly developed devices and applications.
Perhaps the second of these objectives is the more important in the long run; it is clear that engineers and scientists who deal with electronics will continually be called upon to learn about new devices and processes in the future. For this reason, we have tried to incorporate the basics of semiconductor materials and conduction processes in solids, which arise repeatedly in the literature when new devices are explained. Some of these concepts are often omitted in introductory courses, with the view that they are unnecessary for understanding the fundamentals of junctions and transistors. We believe this view neglects the important goal of equipping students for the task of understanding a new device by reading the current literature. Therefore, in this text most of the commonly used semiconductor terms and concepts are introduced and related to a broad range of devices.
The sixth edition benefits greatly from comments and suggestions provided ACKNOW-by students and teachers of the first five editions. The book’s readers have LEDGMENTS generously provided comments which have been invaluable in developing the present version.
We remain indebted to those persons mentioned in the Preface of the first five editions, who contributed so much to the development of the book. In particular, Nick Holonyak has been a source of continuing information and inspiration for all six editions. Additional thanks go to our colleagues at UT-Austin who have provided special assistance, particularly Joe Campbell, Leonard Frank Register, Ray Chen, Archie Holmes, Dim-Lee Kwong, Jack Lee, and Dean Neikirk. Lisa Weltzer provided useful assistance with the typing of the homework solutions. We thank the many companies and organizations cited in the figure captions for generously providing photographs and illustrations of devices and fabrication processes.
Bill Dunnigan, Naras Iyengar, and Pradipto Mukherjee at Free scale, Peter Rickert and Puneet Kohli at TI, Chandra Mouli and Dan Spangler at Micron, Majeed Foad at Applied Materials, and Tim Sater at MEMC deserve special mention for the new pictures in this edition.
Finally, we recall with gratitude many years of association with the late Al Tasch, a valued colleague and friend
Contents – Solid State Electronic Devices
1 CRYSTAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SEMICONDUCTORS.
Semiconductor Materials. Periodic Structures. Crystal Lattices. Cubic Lattices. Planes and Directions. The Diamond Lattice. Bulk Crystal Growth. Starting Materials. Growth of Single Crystal Ingots. Wafers. Doping. Epitaxial Growth. Lattice Matching in Epitaxial Growth. Vapor-Phase Epitaxy. Molecular Beam Epitaxy.
2 ATOMS AND ELECTRONS.
Introduction to Physical Models. Experimental Observations. The Photoelectric Effect. Atomic Spectra. The Bohr Model. Quantum Mechanics. Probability and the Uncertainty Principle. The Schrdinger Wave Equation. Potential Well Problem. Tunneling. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. The Hydrogen Atom. The Periodic Table.
3 ENERGY BANDS AND CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS.
Bonding Forces and Energy Bands in Solids. Bonding Forces in Solids. Energy Bands. Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators. Direct and Indirect Semiconductors. Variation of Energy Bands with Alloy Composition. Charge Carriers in Semiconductors. Electrons and Holes. Effective Mass. Intrinsic Material. Extrinsic Material. Electrons and Holes in Quantum Wells. Carrier Concentrations. The Fermi Level. Electron and Hole Concentrations at Equilibrium. Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentrations. Compensation and Space Charge Neutrality. Drift of Carriers in Electric and Magnetic Fields. Conductivity and Mobility. Drift and Resistance. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND DOPING ON MOBILITY. High-Field Effects. The Hall Effect. Invariance of the Fermi Level at Equilibrium.
4 EXCESS CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS.
Optical Absorption. Luminescence. Photoluminescence. Electroluminescence. Carrier Lifetime and Photoconductivity. Direct Recombination of Electrons and Holes. Indirect Recombination; Trapping. Steady State Carrier Generation; Quasi-Fermi Levels. Photoconductive Devices. Diffusion of Carriers. Diffusion Processes. Diffusion and Drift of Carriers; Built-in Fields. Diffusion and Recombination; The Continuity Equation. Steady State Carrier Injection; Diffusion Length. The Haynes-Shockley Experiment. Gradients in the Quasi-Fermi Levels.
Fabrication of p-n Junctions. Thermal Oxidation. Diffusion. Rapid Thermal Processing. Ion Implantation. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). Photolithography. Etching. Metallization. Equilibrium Conditions. The Contact Potential. Equilibrium Fermi Levels. Space Charge at a Junction. Forward- and Reverse-Biased Junctions; Steady State Conditions. Qualitative Description of Current Flow at a Junction. Carrier Injection. Reverse Bias. Reverse-Bias Breakdown. Zener Breakdown. Avalanche Breakdown. Rectifiers. The Breakdown Diode. Transient and A-C Conditions. Time Variation of Stored Charge. Reverse Recovery Transient. Switching Diodes. Capacitance of p-n Junctions. The Varactor Diode. Deviations from the Simple Theory. Effects of Contact Potential on Carrier Injection. Recombination and Generation in the Transition Region. Ohmic Losses. GRADED JUNCTIONS. Metal-Semiconductor Junctions. Schottky Barriers. Rectifying Contacts. Ohmic Contacts. Typical Schottky Barriers. Heterojunctions.
6 FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS.
Transistor Operation. The Load Line. Amplification and Switching. The Junction FET. Pinch-off and Saturation. Gate Control. Current-Voltage Characteristics. The Metal-Semiconductor FET. The GaAs MESFET. The High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT). Short Channel Effects. The Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor FET. Basic Operation and Fabrication. The Ideal MOS Capacitor. Effects of Real Surfaces. Threshold Voltage. MOS Capacitance-Voltage Analysis. Time-dependent Capacitance Measurements. Current-Voltage Characteristics of MOS Gate Oxides. The MOS Field-Effect Transistor. Output Characteristics. Transfer Characteristics. Mobility Models. Short Channel MOSFET I-V Characteristics. Control of Threshold Voltage. Substrate Bias Effects. Subthreshold Characteristics. Equivalent Circuit for the MOSFET. MOSFET Scaling and Hot Electron Effects. Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering. Short Channel and Narrow Width Effect. Gate-Induced Drain Leakage.
7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS.
Fundamentals of BJT Operation. Amplification with BJTs. BJT Fabrication. Minority Carrier Distributions and Terminal Currents. Solution of the Diffusion Equation in the Base Region. Evaluation of the Terminal Currents. Approximations of the Terminal Currents. Current Transfer Ratio. Generalized Biasing. The Coupled-Diode Model. Charge Control Analysis. Switching. Cutoff. Saturation. The Switching Cycle. Specifications for Switching Transistors. Other Important Effects. Drift in the Base Region. Base Narrowing. Avalanche Breakdown. Injection Level; Thermal Effects. Base Resistance and Emitter Crowding. Gummel-Poon Model. Kirk Effect. Frequency Limitations of Transistors. Capacitance and Charging Times. Transit Time Effects. Webster Effect. High-Frequency Transistors. Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors.
8 OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES.
Photodiodes. Current and Voltage in an Illuminated Junction. Solar Cells. Photodetectors. Noise and Bandwidth of Photodetectors. Light-Emitting Diodes. Light-Emitting Materials. Fiber Optic Communications. Multilayer Heterojunctions for LEDs. Lasers. Semiconductor Lasers. Population Inversion at a Junction. Emission Spectra for p-n Junction Lasers. The Basic Semiconductor Laser. Heterojunction Lasers. Materials for Semiconductor Lasers.
9 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS.
Background. Advantages of Integration. Types of Integrated Circuits. Monolithic and Hybrid Circuits. Evolution of Integrated Circuits. Monolithic Device Elements. CMOS Process Integration. Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI). Integration of Other Circuit Elements. Charge Transfer Devices. Dynamic Effects in MOS Capacitors. The Basic CCD. Improvements on the Basic Structure. Applications of CCDs. Ultra Large-Scale Integration (ULSI). Logic Devices. Semiconductor Memories. Testing, Bonding, and Packaging. Testing. Wire Bonding. Flip-Chip Techniques. Packaging.
10. HIGH FREQUENCY AND HIGH POWER DEVICES.
Tunnel Diodes: Degenerate Semiconductors. Tunnel diode Operation. Circuit Applications. Transit Time Devices: The IMPATT Diode. Gunn Effect and Related Devices: Transferred Electron Mechanism. Formation and Drift of Space Charge Domains. Fabrication. The p-n-p-n Diode: Basic Structure. Two-Transistor Analogy. Variation of α with Injection. Forward-Blocking State. Conducting State. Triggering Mechanisms. Semiconductor Controlled Rectifier: Gate Control. Turning off the SCR. Bilateral Devices. Fabrication and Applications. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor.
Definitions of Commonly Used Symbols. Physical Constants and Conversion Factors. Properties of Semiconductor Materials. Derivation of the Density of States in the Conduction Band. Derivation of Fermi-Dirac Statistics. Dry and Wet Thermal Oxide Thickness as a Function of Time
and Temperature. Solid Solubilities of Impurities in Si. Diffusivities of Dopants in Si and SiO2. Projected Range and Straggle as a Function of Implant Energy in Si.
Author – Solid State Electronic Devices
Ben G. Streetman is Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin. He is an Emeritus Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, where he held the Dula D. Cockrell Centennial Chair. He was the founding Director of the Microelectronics Research Center (1984—96). His teaching and research interests involve semiconductor materials and devices. After receiving a Ph.D. from The University of Texas at Austin (1966) he was on the faculty (1966–1982) of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He returned to The University of Texas at Austin in 1982. His honors include the Education Medal of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Frederick Emmons Terman Medal of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), and the Heinrich Welker Medal from the International Conference on Compound Semiconductors. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
He is a Fellow of the IEEE and the Electrochemical Society. He has been honored as a Distinguished Alumnus of The University of Texas at Austin and as a Distinguished Graduate of the UT College of Engineering. He has received the General Dynamics Award for Excellence in Engineering Teaching, and was honored by the Parents’ Association as a Teaching Fellow for outstanding teaching of undergraduates. He has served on numerous panels and committees in industry and government, and several corporate boards. He has published more than 290 articles in the technical literature. Thirty five students of Electrical and Computer Engineering have received their Ph.D. under his supervision.
Sanjay Kumar Banerjee is the Cockrell Chair Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Director of the Microelectronics Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin. He has more than 900 archival refereed publications and conference papers, 30 U.S. patents, and has supervised 50 Ph.D. students. His honors include the NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award (1988), ECS Callinan Award (2003) and IEEE Grove Award (2014). He is a Fellow of IEEE, APS and AAAS.