Soil Mechanics Fundamentals by Muni Budhu PDF

Soil Mechanics Fundamentals by Muni Budhu pdf

Soil Mechanics Fundamentals – This accessible, clear and concise textbook strikes a balance between theory and practical applications for an introductory course in soil mechanics for undergraduates in civil engineering, construction, mining and geological engineering.

Soil Mechanics Fundamentals lays a solid foundation on key principles of soil mechanics for application in later engineering courses as well as in engineering practice. With this textbook, students will learn how to conduct a site investigation, acquire an understanding of the physical and mechanical properties of soils and methods of determining them, and apply the knowledge gained to analyse and design earthworks, simple foundations, retaining walls and slopes.

The author discusses and demonstrates contemporary ideas and methds of interpreting the physical and mechanical properties of soils for both fundamental knowledge and for practical applications.

The chapter presentation and content is informed by modern theories of how students learn:

Soil Mechanics Fundamentals Features

  • Learning objectives inform students what knowledge and skills they are expected to gain from the chapter.
  • Definitions of Key Terms are given which students may not have encountered previously, or may have been understood in a different context.
  • Key Point summaries throughout emphasize the most important points in the material just read.
  • Practical Examples give students an opportunity to see how the prior and current principles are integrated to solve ‘real world’ problems.

New to the Second Edition:

The revised text expands the contents to include an introductory foundation engineering section to make the book cover the full range of geotechnical engineering. The book includes three new chapters: Site Exploration, Deep Foundations, and Slope Stability.

This text:

  • Provides an introductory chapter on soil mechanics
  • Explores the origin and description of soils and discusses soil shapes and gradations
  • Presents the unique characteristics of clays
  • Details soil classifications by the Unified Soil Classification System (also ASTM) and by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
  • Highlights laboratory and field compaction techniques, including field specification and density testing,, and the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) method
  • Discusses the flow of water through soils, defining hydraulic heads, as well as the two-dimensional flow net technique and a systematic approach to compute boundary water pressures
  • Examines the concept of effective stress and its applications to various soil mechanics problems
  • Explores stress increments in a soil mass due to various types of footing load on the ground
  • Presents Terzaghi’s one-dimensional consolidation theory and its applications
  • Covers Mohr’s circle from geotechnical perspectives with use of the pole, which is utilized in chapters relating to shear strength and lateral earth pressure
  • Addresses the shear strength of soils, failure criteria, and laboratory as well as field shear strength determination techniques
  • Evaluates at-rest earth pressure and the classic Rankine and Coulomb active and passive pressure theories and present critical review of those methods
  • Reviews introductory foundation engineering and site exploration
  • Describes the bearing capacity theory and, as an application, the shallow foundation design procedure
  • Covers deep and shallow foundation design procedures
  • Explains slope stability problems and remediation procedures, and more

Soil Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition is a concise and thorough text that explains soil’s fundamental behavior and its applications to foundation designs and slope stability problems and incorporates basic engineering science knowledge with engineering practices and practical applications.

Soil Mechanics Fundamentals – Table of Contents

Introduction
Soil Mechanics and Related Fields
Biography of Dr. Karl von Terzaghi
Uniqueness of Soils
Approaches to Soil Mechanics Problems
Examples of Soil Mechanics Problems
References
Physical Properties of Soils
Introduction
Origin of Soils
Soil Particle Shapes
Definitions of Terms with Three-Phase Diagram
Particle Size and Gradation
Summary
References
Clays and Their Behavior
Introduction
Clay Minerals
Clay Shapes and Surface Areas
Surface Charge of Clay Particles
Clay-Water Systems
Interaction of Clay Particles
Clay Structures
Atterberg Limits and Indices
Activity
Swelling and Shrinkage of Clays
Sensitivity and Quick Clay
Clay Versus Sand
Summary
References

Soil Classification
Introduction
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
AASHTO Classification System
Summary
References
Compaction
Introduction
Relative Density
Laboratory Compaction Test
Specification of Compaction in the Field
Field Compaction Methods
Field Density Determinations
California Bearing Ratio Test
Summary
References
Flow of Water through Soils
Introduction
Hydraulic Heads and Water Flow
Darcy’s Equation
Coefficient of Permeability
Laboratory Determination of Coefficient of Permeability
Field Determination of Coefficient of Permeability
Flow Net
Boundary Water Pressures
Summary
References
Effective Stress
Introduction
Total Stress Versus Effective Stress
Effective Stress Computations in Soil Mass
Effective Stress Change due to Water Table Change
Capillary Rise and Effective Stress
Effective Stress with Water Flow
Quicksand (Sand Boiling)
Heave of Clay due to Excavation
Summary
References
Stress Increments in Soil Mass
Introduction
Approximate Slope Method
Vertical Stress Increment due to a Point Load
Vertical Stress Increment due to a Line Load
Vertical Stress Increment due to a Strip Load
Vertical Stress Increment under a Circular Footing
Vertical Stress Increment under an Embankment Load
Vertical Stress Increment under Corner of Rectangular Footing
Vertical Stress Increment under Irregularly Shaped Footing
Summary
References
Settlements
Introduction
Elastic Settlements
Primary Consolidation Settlement
One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation Model
Terzaghi’s Consolidation Theory
Laboratory Consolidation Test
Determination of Cv
e-log σ Curve
Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Soils
Final Consolidation Settlement for Thin Clay Layer
Consolidation Settlement for Multilayers or a Thick Clay Layer
Summary of Primary Consolidation Computations
Secondary Compression
Allowable Settlement
Ground-Improving Techniques against Consolidation Settlement
Summary
References
Mohr’s Circle in Soil Mechanics
Introduction
Concept of Mohr’s Circle
Stress Transformation
Mohr’s Circle Construction
Sign Convention of Shear Stress
Pole (Origin of Planes) of Mohr’s Circle
Summary of Usage of Mohr’s Circle and Pole
Examples of Usage of Mohr’s Circle and Pole in Soil Mechanics
Summary
Reference
Shear Strength of Soils
Introduction
Failure Criteria
Direct Shear Test
Unconfined Compression Test
Triaxial Compression Test
Other Shear Test Devices
Summary of Strength Parameters for Saturated Clays
Applications of Strength Parameters from CD, CU, and UU Tests to In Situ Cases
Strength Parameters for Granular Soils
Direction of Failure Planes on Sheared Specimen
Summary
References
Lateral Earth Pressure
Introduction
At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures
At-Rest Earth Pressure
Rankine’s Lateral Earth Pressure Theory
Coulomb’s Earth Pressure
Lateral Earth Pressure due to Surcharge Load
Coulomb, Rankine, or Other Pressures?
Summary
References
Site Exploration
Introduction
Site Exploration Program
Geophysical Methods
Borehole Drilling
Standard Penetration Test
Undisturbed Soil Samplers
Groundwater Monitoring
Cone Penetration Test
Other In Situ Tests
Summary
References
Bearing Capacity and Shallow Foundations
Introduction
Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory
Generalized Bearing Capacity Equation
Correction due to Water Table Elevation
Gross Versus Net Bearing Capacity
Factor of Safety on Bearing Capacity
Shallow Foundation Design
Summary
References
Deep Foundations
Introduction
Types of Piles
Load Carrying Capacity by Static Analytical Methods
Static Pile Capacity on Sandy Soils
Static Pile Capacity in Cohesive Soils
Other Methods of Pile Capacity Estimation
Negative Skin Friction
Group Pile
Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles
Pullout Resistance
Summary
References
Slope Stability
Introduction
Slope Failure
Slope Stability Analytical Methods
Slope Stability of a Semi-infinitely Long Slope
Stability Analysis for Circular Slip Surface
Analysis for Multiple Liner Sliding Surfaces
Stabilization for Unstable Slopes
Summary
References
Numerical Answers to Selected Problems

Reviews – Soil Mechanics Fundamentals

“Overall, this book is written in an easy-to-read style suitable for undergraduate engineering students. Chapter 1 is an excellent example of that style. In just a few pages, Chapter 1 provides the reader with an appreciation for geotechnical engineering and its evolution. It succinctly makes the point that soils are different from other civil engineering materials, and thus gives students a reason and purpose for studying the behavior of soils in a stand-alone course. In particular, the case histories in Section 1.5 stand out; students are immediately confronted with some of the unique challenges in geotechnical practice. … For me, the material in Chapter 2 that stands out is related to phase diagrams; the presentation of phase diagrams is ideal for students. How one can use the phase diagram to determine fundamental physical properties is illustrated well. It emphasizes the process of ‘filling in’ the phase diagram to find phase weights and volumes, rather than having students sort through a plethora of pre-derived expressions to find one that works for a specific problem. This process is important because it helps reinforce the fundamental weight-volume relationships for soils, which can be used again and again throughout the course as students learn more advanced concepts.”
—Charles E. Pierce, Ph.D, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA

“In summary, the level of explanation is much richer than most undergrad level books in use and … Many soil mechanics text book authors do not know where to draw the line between mechanics and engineering and they load up the texts with too many foundation related information”
—Hirroshan Hettiarahchi, United Nations University

“This is a good soil mechanics book. It is written very concisely and straightforwardly, in a way students can teach themselves. It covers most of the common topics in the areas of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering practice. It is a good textbook for a Civil Engineering Program where students only take one course in geotechnical engineering.”
—Jay X. Wang, Louisiana Tech University

Author(s) Bio

Dr. Isao Ishibashi, P.E., is a professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. He obtained bachelors and master’s degrees from Nagoya University, Japan. After earning his PhD from the University of Washington, Seattle, he taught and was on the research faculty at the University of Washington and Cornell University before moving to Old Dominion University in 1986. His research includes soil liquefaction, dynamic soil properties, static and dynamic earth pressures, seismic water pressure, granular mechanics, slope stability, and used-tire application to embankment. He has authored or co-authored more than 100 published technical papers.

Dr. Hemanta Hazarika is a professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. He obtained his bachelor of technology degree in civil engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras, India, and his PhD in geotechnical engineering from Nagoya University, Japan. He also worked as a practicing engineer in industry as well as a researcher in the public sector research institute of Japan. Professor Hazarika has more than 130 technical publications in reputed international journals, proceedings of international conferences, and symposia, including contributed chapters in several books. He is also the editor of two books in his research fields.

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