Shallow Foundations Discussions and Problem-Solving PDF

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Shallow Foundations Discussions and Problem-Solving PDF

Shallow Foundations Discussions and Problem-Solving PDF – Shallow Foundations Discussions and Problem-Solving by Tharwat M. Baban | PDF Free Download.

Shallow Foundations Contents


  • Site Investigation in Relation to Analysis and Design of Foundations
  • Shallow Foundations – Introductory Chapter
  • Shallow Foundations – Settlement
  • Shallow Foundations – Bearing Capacity
  • Shallow Foundations – Structural Design
  • Eurocode Standards and the Design of Spread Foundations

Preface to Shallow Foundations Discussions and Problem-Solving


This book is intended primarily to introduce civil engineers, especially geotechnical engineers and all civil engineering students reading the specialist subjects of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, to the fundamental concepts and application of shallow foundation analysis and design.

Also, the furnished material can be considered as an essential reference work for practicing civil engineers, consulting engineers, and government authorities.

The primary focus of this book is on interfacing structural elements with the underlying soil, which is, in the author’s opinion, where the major focus of shallow foundation engineering lies.

The book is not intended to be a specific textbook on soil mechanics or geotechnical engineering. Therefore, there is no part of the text alone that could be used as a core syllabus for a certain course.

However, it is the author’s opinion that more than 70% of the book is core material at the advanced undergraduate levels.

It is expected that civil engineering students will find the text helpful in better understanding the fundamental concepts and their implications for the analysis and design of shallow foundations.

The author tried to present the material such that separable topics and subtopics are covered in separate sections, with clear and unambiguous titles and subtitles.

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Thus, it would not be difficult for a university lecturer to draw up a personalized reading schedule, appropriate to his or her own course. It is hoped that the book can establish itself as an effective reference and a useful text in most of the engineering colleges and technical institutions.

Generally, the given material is of an advanced level and, therefore, it is assumed that the reader has a good understanding of basic statics and the mechanics of materials and has studied the basic principles of soil mechanics, lateral earth pressures, and reinforced concrete.

SI units are used throughout all the chapters and, therefore, the reader also needs to have sufficient background knowledge regarding the use of these units.

The book would be very beneficial to the reader since it provides essential data for the design of shallow foundations under ordinary circumstances.

The necessary background concepts and theories are generally presented clearly in concise forms of formulas or charts, and their applications are highlighted through solving a relatively large number of realistic problems.

Moreover, the worked problems are of the types usually faced by civil engineers in practice and, therefore, the obtained information will be most valuable. Generally, the subject matter is introduced here by first discussing the particular topic and then solving a number of pertinent objective problems that highlight the relevant theories, concepts, and analysis methods.

A list of crucial references is given at the end of each chapter. Thus, each chapter consists of three parts: discussions, problem-solving, and references.

The “discussion” part is presented in a clear and concise but precise manner, keeping in view the avoidance of unnecessary details. In some chapters, where the topics are of special difficulty, full guiding explanations are given; where the subject of study is simpler, less detailed treatment is provided.

The “problem solving” part gives a relatively comprehensive range of work out problems to consolidate an understanding of the principles and illustrate their applications in simple practical situations. A total of 180 worked problems have been provided.

The author’s academic and professional career has proved to him that geotechnical engineers and civil engineering students need to be well acquainted with the correct and effective use of the theoretical and empirical principles and formulas they have learned.

An effective way to lessen the deficiency may be through solving, as much as possible, a variety of problems of the type or nearly similar to those engineers face in practice. For these reasons the author considers the “problem solving” part, on which the book is partially based, as a vital portion of the text.

The “references” part that comes directly at the end of each chapter enriches the discussions part with valuable sources of information and increases its reliability.

Moreover, the furnished references will be very beneficial to any ambitious fresh civil engineer or undergraduate student who may wish later to undertake higher studies in the subject.

The text comprises six chapters. The chapters are devoted mostly to the geotechnical and structural aspects of shallow foundation design. A brief overview of each chapter follows:

Chapter 1 deals with site investigation in relation to the analysis and design of shallow foundations. Unlike the other chapters, this chapter requires various topics, field tests, in particular, to be discussed separately.

Therefore, only a general and a relatively brief overview of the overall subject matter, consistent with the chapter title, is given in the main “discussion” part.

Discussion of individual topics is given in the “problem solving” part directly below the relevant problem statement. Solutions to 27 problems have been provided. These solutions and those of the other five chapters have fully worked out calculations. 

Chapter 2 presents introductory discussions and explanations of various topics pertaining to shallow foundations, their analysis, and design.

It discusses the type and depth of shallow foundations, performance requirements, sulfate and organic acid attack on concrete, distribution of contact pressures and settlements, and vertical stress increase in soils due to foundation loads. Solutions to 21 problems are presented. 

Chapter 3 concerns settlements due to foundation loads. The chapter discusses various types of settlements of foundations on both coarse- and fine-grained soils, methods of settlement estimation,

methods of estimating and accelerating consolidation settlement, settlement due to secondary compression (creep), estimation of settlements over the construction period, and settlement of foundations on rock. Solutions to 56 problems are introduced. 

Chapter 4 deals with the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The chapter discusses most of the significant aspects of the subject matter, among them:

bearing capacity failure mechanism, bearing capacity equations, bearing capacity of footings with concentric and eccentric vertical loads, bearing capacity of footings with inclined loads, effects of the water table and other factors on bearing capacity, the uplift capacity of shallow foundations, bearing capacity of foundations on layered soils and on slopes, and bearing capacity of a rock. Solutions to 40 problems are provided. 

Chapter 5 deals with the structural design of different types of shallow foundations. Structural design of plain concrete spread footings, pedestals, pile caps, and the foundations of earth-retaining concrete walls are also included. The discussion part of the chapter covers most of the major aspects of the subject matter such as:

a selection of materials, design loads, structural action of isolated and continuous footings, eccentrically loaded footings, modulus of subgrade reaction and beams on elastic foundations, rigid and flexible design methods, and so on.

Design calculations of 28 typical problems are presented in a step by step order. All the structural designs conform to the Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318) and Commentary, USA.

Chapter 6 deals with Eurocode Standards in relation to the design of spread foundations. The discussion part of the chapter covers certain important topics such as Eurocode background and applications, the basis of design and requirements, principles of limit states design, design approaches, partial factors and load combinations, geotechnical and structural designs of spread foundations, and so on.

The problem-solving part of the chapter provides design calculations of eight typical problems, as an attempt to introduce the concerned engineer to the application of the design rules stipulated by Eurocodes 2 and 7 (or EN 1992 and 1997) rather than the geotechnical and structural related issues.

It is well known that not all civil engineers are acquainted with all internationally recognized codes, such as the ACI Code and Eurocodes, at the same time.

Therefore, this chapter is specially written for those civil engineers, especially geotechnical engineers, who are unfamiliar with the technical rules and requirements of the Eurocode Standards (Structural Eurocode).

The implementation of the Eurocode is extended to all the European Union countries and there are firm steps toward their international adoption.

It must be clear that, despite every care taken to ensure correctness or accuracy, some errors might have crept in. The author will be grateful to the readers for bringing such errors, if any, to his notice. Also, suggestions for the improvement of the text will be gratefully acknowledged.

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