Power System Operation and Control PDF

Power System Operation and Control PDF

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Contents – Power System Operation and Control PDF

Title page
Brief Contents
Contents Power System Operation and Control PDF
Also by the same author
Chapter 1. Economic Aspects
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Load Curve
1.3 Load–Duration Curve
1.4 Integrated Load–Duration Curve
1.4.1 Uses of Integrated Load–Duration Curve
1.5 Definition of Terms and Factors
1.5.1 Connected Load
1.5.2 Maximum Demand
1.5.3 Demand Factor
1.5.4 Average Load
1.5.5 Load Factor
1.5.6 Diversity Factor
1.5.7 Plant Capacity
1.5.8 Plant Capacity Factor
1.5.9 Utilization Factor (or Plant-Use Factor)
1.5.10 Firm Power
1.5.11 Prime Power
1.5.12 Dump Power
1.5.13 Spill Power
1.5.14 Cold Reserve
1.5.15 Hot Reserve
1.5.16 Spinning Reserve
1.6 Base Load and Peak Load on a Power Station
1.7 Load Forecasting
1.7.1 Purpose of Load Forecasting
1.7.2 Classification of Load Forecasting
1.7.3 Forecasting Procedure
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 2. Economic Load Dispatch-I
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Characteristics of Power Generation (Steam) Unit
2.3 System Variables
2.3.1 Control Variables (PG and QG)
2.3.2 Disturbance Variables (PD and QD)
2.3.3 State Variables (V and δ)
2.4 Problem of Optimum Dispatch—Formulation
2.5 Input–Output Characteristics
2.5.1 Units of Turbine Input
2.6 Cost Curves
2.7 Incremental Fuel Cost Curve
2.8 Heat Rate Curve
2.9 Incremental Efficiency
2.10 Non-Smooth Cost Functions with Multivalve Effect
2.11 Non-smooth Cost Functions with Multiple Fuels
2.12 Characteristics of a Hydro-Power Unit
2.12.1 Effect of the Water Head on Discharge of Water for a Hydro-Unit
2.12.2 Incremental Water Rate Characteristics of Hydro-Units
2.12.3 Incremental Cost Characteristic of a Hydro-Unit
2.12.4 Constraints of Hydro-Power Plants
2.13 Incremental Production Costs
2.14 Classical Methods for Economic Operation of System Plants
2.15 Optimization Problem—Mathematical Formulation (Neglecting the Transmission Losses)
2.15.1 Objective Function
2.15.2 Constraint Equations
2.16 Mathematical Determination of Optimal Allocation of Total Load Among Different Units
2.17 Computational Methods
2.17.1 Analytical Method
2.17.2 Graphical Method Power System Operation and Control PDF
2.17.3 Solution by Using a Digital Computer
2.18 Economic Dispatch Neglecting Losses and Including Generator Limits
2.19 Flowchart for Obtaining Optimal Scheduling of Generating Units by Neglecting the Transmission Losses
2.20 Economical Load Dispatch—In Other Units
2.20.1 Nuclear units
2.20.2 Pumped storage hydro-units
2.20.3 Hydro-plants
2.20.4 Including reactive-power flows
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 3. Economic Load Dispatch-II
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Optimal Generation Scheduling Problem: Consideration of Transmission Losses
3.2.1 Mathematical modeling
3.3 Transmission Loss Expression in Terms of Real-Power Generation—Derivation
3.4 Mathematical Determination of Optimum Allocation of Total Load when Transmission Losses are Taken into Consideration
3.4.1 Determination of ITL formula
3.4.2 Penalty Factor
3.5 Flowchart for the Solution of an Optimization Problem when Transmission Losses are Considered
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 4. Optimal Unit Commitment
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Comparison with Economic Load Dispatch
4.3 Need for UC
4.4 Constraints in UC
4.4.1 Spinning Reserve
4.4.2 Thermal Unit Constraints
4.4.3 Hydro-Constraints
4.4.4 Must Run
4.4.5 Fuel Constraints
4.5 Cost Function Formulation
4.5.1 Start-up Cost Consideration
4.5.2 Shut-down Cost Consideration
4.6 Constraints for Plant Commitment Schedules
4.7 Unit Commitment—Solution Methods
4.7.1 Enumeration Scheme
4.7.2 Priority-list Method
4.7.3 Dynamic Programming
4.8 Consideration of Reliability in Optimal UC Problem
4.8.1 Patton’s security function
4.9 Optimal UC with Security Constraint
4.9.1 Illustration of Security Constraint with Example 4.2
4.10 Start-Up Consideration
Key Notes
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short Questions and Answers
Review Questions
Chapter 5. Optimal Power-Flow Problem—Solution Technique
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Optimal Power-Flow Problem without Inequality Constraints
5.2.1 Algorithm for Computational Procedure
5.3 Optimal Power-Flow Problem with Inequality Constraints
5.3.1 Inequality Constraints on Control Variables
5.3.2 Inequality Constraints on Dependent Variables—Penalty Function Method
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 6. Hydro-Thermal Scheduling
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Hydro-Thermal Co-ordination
6.3 Scheduling of Hydro-Units in a Hydro-Thermal System
6.4 Co-ordination of Run-off River Plant and Steam Plant
6.5 Long-Term Co-ordination
6.6 Short-Term Co-ordination
6.6.1 Constant Hydro-Generation Method
6.6.2 Constant Thermal Generation Method
6.6.3 Maximum Hydro-Efficiency Method
6.7 General Mathematical Formulation of Long-Term Hydro-Thermal Scheduling
6.7.1 Solution of Problem-Discretization Principle
6.7.2 Solution Technique
6.7.3 Algorithm
6.8 Solution of Short-Term Hydro-Thermal Scheduling Problems—Kirchmayer’s Method
6.9 Advantages of Operation of Hydro-Thermal Combinations
6.9.1 Flexibility
6.9.2 Greater Economy
6.9.3 Security of Supply
6.9.4 Better Energy Conservation
6.9.5 Reserve Capacity Maintenance
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 7. Load Frequency Control-I
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Necessity of Maintaining Frequency Constant
7.3 Load Frequency Control
7.4 Governor Characteristics of a Single Generator
7.5 Adjustment of Governor Characteristic of Parallel Operating Units
7.6 LFC: (P–f Control) Power System Operation and Control PDF
7.7 Q–V Control
7.8 Generator Controllers (P–f and Q–V Controllers)
7.9 P–f Control versus Q–V Control
7.10 Dynamic Interaction Between P–f and Q–V Loops
7.11 Speed-Governing System
7.11.1 Speed-Governing System Model
7.12 Turbine Model
7.12.1 Non-reheat-type Steam Turbines
7.12.2 Incremental or Small Signal for a Turbine-Governor System
7.12.3 Reheat Type of Steam Turbines
7.13 Generator-Load Model
7.14 Control Area Concept
7.15 Incremental Power Balance of Control Area
7.16 Single Area Identification
7.16.1 Block Diagram Representation of a Single Area
7.17 Single Area—Steady-State Analysis
7.17.1 Speed-Changer Position is Constant (Uncontrolled Case)
7.17.2 Load Demand is Constant (Controlled Case)
7.17.3 Speed Changer and Load Demand are Variables
7.18 Static Load Frequency Curves
7.19 Dynamic Analysis
7.20 Requirements of the Control Strategy
7.20.1 Integral Control
7.21 Analysis of the Integral Control
7.22 Role of Integral Controller Gain (KI) Setting
7.23 Control of Generator Unit Power Output
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 8. Load Frequency Control-II
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Composite Block Diagram of a Two-Area Case
8.3 Response of a Two-Area System—Uncontrolled Case
8.3.1 Static Response
8.3.2 Dynamic Response
8.4 Area Control Error —Two-Area Case
8.5 Composite Block Diagram of a Two-Area System (Controlled Case)
8.5.1 Tie-line Bias Control
8.5.2 Steady-State Response
8.5.3 Dynamic Response
8.6 Optimum Parameter Adjustment
8.7 Load Frequency and Economic Dispatch Controls
8.8 Design of Automatic Generation Control Using the Kalman Method
8.9 Dynamic-State-Variable Model
8.9.1 Model of Single-Area Dynamic System in a State-Variable Form
8.9.2 Optimum Control Index (I)
8.9.3 Optimum Control Problem and Strategy
8.9.4 Dynamic Equations of a Two-Area System
8.9.5 State-Variable Model for a Three-Area Power System
8.9.6 Advantages of State-Variable Model
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 9. Reactive Power Compensation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Objectives of Load Compensation
9.2.1 P. f. Correction
9.2.2 Voltage Regulation Improvement
9.2.3 Load Balancing Power System Operation and Control PDF
9.3 Ideal Compensator
9.4 Specifications of Load Compensation
9.5 Theory of Load Compensation
9.5.1 P. f. correction
9.5.2 Voltage Regulation
9.6 Load Balancing and p.f. Improvement of Unsymmetrical Three-Phase Loads
9.6.1 P. f. Correction
9.6.2 Load Balancing
9.7 Uncompensated Transmission Lines
9.7.1 Fundamental Transmission Line Equation
9.7.2 Characteristic Impedance
9.7.3 Surge Impedance or Natural Loading
9.8 Uncompensated Line with Open-Circuit
9.8.1 Voltage and Current Profiles
9.8.2 The Symmetrical Line at no-Load
9.8.3 Underexcited Operation of Generators Due to Line-Charging
9.9 The Uncompensated Line Under Load
9.9.1 Radial line with fixed Sending-end Voltage
9.9.2 Reactive Power Requirements
9.9.3 The Uncompensated Line Under Load with Consideration of Maximum Power and Stability
9.10 Compensated Transmission Lines
9.11 Sub-Synchronous Resonance
9.11.1 Effects of Series and Shunt Compensation of Lines
9.11.2 Concept of SSR in Lines
9.12 Shunt Compensator
9.12.1 Thyristor-Controlled Reactor
9.12.2 Thyristor-Switched Capacitor
9.13 Series Compensator
9.14 Unified Power-Flow Controller
9.15 Basic Relationship for Power-Flow Control
9.15.1 Without Line Compensation
9.15.2 With Series Capacitive Compensation
9.15.3 With Shunt Compensation
9.15.4 With Phase Angle Control
9.16 Comparison of Different Types of Compensating Equipment for Transmission Systems
9.17 Voltage Stability—What is it?
9.17.1 Voltage Stability
9.17.2 Voltage Collapse
9.18 Voltage-Stability Analysis
9.18.1 P–V Curves
9.18.2 Concept of Voltage Collapse Proximate Indicator
9.18.3 Voltage-Stability Analysis: Q–V Curves
9.19 Derivation for Voltage-Stability Index
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 10. Voltage Control
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Necessity of Voltage Control
10.3 Generation and Absorption of Reactive Power
10.4 Location of Voltage-Control Equipment
10.5 Methods of Voltage Control
10.5.1 Excitation Control
10.5.2 Shunt Capacitors and Reactors
10.5.3 Series Capacitors
10.5.4 Tap-Changing Transformers
10.5.5 Booster Transformers
10.5.6 Synchronous Condensers
10.6 Rating of Synchronous Phase Modifier
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Problems Power System Operation and Control PDF
Chapter 11. Modeling of Prime Movers and Generators
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Hydraulic Turbine System
11.2.1 Modeling of Hydraulic Turbine
11.3 Steam Turbine Modeling
11.3.1 Non-reheat Type
11.3.2 Reheat type
11.4 Synchronous Machines
11.4.1 Salient-pole-type Rotor
11.4.2 Non-salient-pole-type Rotor
11.5 Simplified Model of Synchronous Machine (Neglecting Saliency and Changes in Flux Linkages)
11.6 Effect of Saliency
11.7 General Equation of Synchronous Machine
11.8 Determination of Synchronous Machine Inductances
11.8.1 Assumptions
11.9 Rotor Inductances
11.9.1 Rotor Self-Inductance
11.9.2 Stator to Rotor Mutual Inductances
11.10 Stator Self-Inductances
11.11 Stator Mutual Inductances
11.12 Development of General Machine Equations—Matrix Form
11.13 Blondel’s Transformation (or) Park’s Transformation to ‘dqo’ Components
11.14 Inverse Park’s Transformation
11.15 Power-Invariant Transformation in ‘f-d-q-o’ Axes
11.16 Flux Linkage Equations
11.17 Voltage Equations
11.18 Physical Interpretation of Equations (11.62) and (11.68)
11.19 Generalized Impedance Matrix (Voltage–Current Relations)
11.20 Torque Equation
11.21 Synchronous Machine—Steady-state Analysis
11.21.1 Salient-pole Synchronous Machine
11.21.2 Non-salient-pole Synchronous (Cylindrical Rotor) Machine
11.22 Dynamic Model of Synchronous Machine
11.22.1 Salient-pole Synchronous Generator—Sub-Transient Effect
11.22.2 Dynamic Model of Synchronous Machine Including Damper Winding
11.22.3 Equivalent Circuit of Synchronous Generator—Including Damper Winding Effect
11.23 Modeling of Synchronous Machine—Swing Equation
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 12. Modeling of Speed Governing and Excitation Systems
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Modeling of Speed-Governing Systems
12.3 For Steam Turbines
12.3.1 Mechanical–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing Systems
12.3.2 Electro–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing Systems
12.3.3 General Model for Speed-Governing Systems
12.4 For Hydro-Turbines Power System Operation and Control PDF
12.4.1 Mechanical–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing Systems
12.4.2 Electric–Hydraulic-Controlled Speed-Governing System
12.5 Modeling with Limits
12.5.1 Wind-up Limiter
12.5.2 Non-wind-up Limiter
12.6 Modeling of a Steam-Governor Turbine System
12.6.1 Reheat System Unit
12.6.2 Block Diagram Representation
12.6.3 Transfer Function of the Steam-Governor Turbine Modeling
12.7 Modeling of a Hydro-Turbine-Speed Governor
12.8 Excitation Systems
12.9 Effect of Varying Excitation of a Synchronous Generator
12.9.1 Explanation
12.9.2 Limitations of Increase in Excitation
12.10 Methods of Providing Excitation
12.10.1 Common Excitation Bus Method
12.10.2 Individual Excitation Method
12.10.3 Block Diagram Representation Structure of a General Excitation System
12.11 Excitation Control Scheme
12.12 Excitation Systems—Classification
12.12.1 DC Excitation System
12.12.2 AC Excitation System
12.12.3 Static Excitation System
12.13 Various Components and their Transfer Functions of Excitation Systems
12.13.1 PT and Rectifier
12.13.2 Voltage Comparator
12.13.3 Amplifiers
12.14 Self-excited Exciter and Amplidyne
12.15 Development of Excitation System Block Diagram
12.15.1 Transfer Function of the Stabilizing Transformer
12.15.2 Transfer Function of Synchronous Generator
12.15.3 IEEE Type-1 Excitation System
12.15.4 Transfer Function of Overall Excitation System
12.16 General Functional Block Diagram of an Excitation System
12.16.1 Terminal Voltage Transducer and Load Compensation
12.16.2 Exciters and Voltage Regulators
12.16.3 Excitation System Stabilizer and Transient Gain Reduction
12.16.4 Power System Stabilizer
12.17 Standard Block Diagram Representations of Different Excitation Systems
12.17.1 DC Excitation System
12.17.2 AC Excitation System
12.17.3 Static Excitation System
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Chapter 13. Power System Security and State Estimation
13.1 Introduction Power System Operation and Control PDF
13.2 The Concept of System Security
13.2.1 Long-Term Planning
13.2.2 Operational Planning
13.2.3 On-line Operation
13.3 Security Analysis
13.3.1 Digital Simulation
13.3.2 Hybrid Computer Simulation
13.3.3 Lyapunov Methods
13.3.4 Pattern Recognition
13.4 Security Enhancement
13.5 SSS Analysis
13.5.1 Requirements of an SSS Assessor
13.6 Transient Security Analysis
13.6.1 Digital Simulation
13.6.2 Pattern Recognition
13.6.3 Lyapunov Method
13.7 State Estimation
13.7.1 State Estimator
13.7.2 Static-State Estimation
13.7.3 Modeling of Uncertainty
13.7.4 Some Basic Facts of State Estimation
13.7.5 Least Squares Estimation
13.7.6 Applications of State Estimation
Key Notes
Short Questions and Answers
Multiple-Choice Questions
Review Questions
Appendix A


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