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Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology 1st Edition

The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology provides an accessible and easy-to-use handbook for medical students and doctors, which succinctly explains the pathology behind important and common diseases relevant to the whole range of medical and surgical specialties.

It covers basic general pathological principles and follows a systems-based approach, highlighting the most common conditions in each area.

Macroscopic and microscopic pathological features are described, as well as relevant immunohistochemical, molecular, and genetic information. Up-to-date staging information is provided for all major malignancies, and reference symbols are used to highlight important points and provide quick links between related topics. This essential guide to pathology is an invaluable resource for medical students, pathology trainees, junior doctors, and biomedical scientists.

Preface – Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

This first edition of the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology was written with the aim of producing a pocket-sized book which concisely conveys the key pathology relevant to clinical practice. The handbook covers both general and systems-based pathology with each topic occupying either a single- or double-page spread. A uniform sequence of headings is followed for each topic to allow easy access to the facts. Although aimed primarily at medical students, this handbook should also be useful for postgraduate doctors working in specialties with close links to pathology. I hope you fi nd this handbook helpful and easy to learn from. Feedback on errors and omissions would be much appreciated. Please post your comments via the OUP website (www.oup.co.uk/medicine/handbooks). James Carton 2011

Acknowledgement – Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

Although written by a single author, this book would not have been possible without the help and support of many other people. First and foremost, I thank Richard Daly, co-author on my previous publication, for his incredible professionalism and grace during diffi cult times. Secondly, I thank all my consultant colleagues at St Mary’s Hospital for creating an environment in which projects like this are encouraged and supported. Finally, thank you to all the wonderful staff at OUP: Elizabeth Reeve, Anna Winstanley, Michael Hawkes, and Eloise Moir–Ford.

Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up-to-date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work.

Contents – Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology


Detailed contents xi
Symbols and abbreviations xx
1 Basic pathology 1
2 Infectious diseases 15
3 Vascular pathology 27
4 Cardiac pathology 39
5 Respiratory pathology 57
6 Gastrointestinal pathology 83
7 Hepatobiliary pathology 115
8 Pancreatic pathology 131
9 Renal pathology 141
10 Urological pathology 157
11 Gynaecological pathology 185
12 Breast pathology 215
13 Endocrine pathology 231

14 Haematopathology 255
15 Skin pathology 285
16 Osteoarticular pathology 305
17 Neuropathology 321
18 Multisystem diseases 345

Detailed Content – Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

Symbols and abbreviations xx
1 Basic pathology 1
Pathological terminology 2
Cellular adaptations 3
Cellular death 4
Infl ammation & healing 5
Innate immunity 6
Adaptive immunity 8
Hypersensitivity reactions 10
Neoplasia 11
Carcinogenesis 12
2 Infectious diseases15
Microbes 16
Antimicrobial agents 17
Human immunodefi ciency virus 18
Tuberculosis 20
Infectious mononucleosis 21
Malaria 22
Syphilis 24
Lyme disease 25
Leishmaniasis 26
3 Vascular pathology27
Atherosclerosis 28
Shock 30
Hypertension 31
Chronic lower limb ischaemia 32
Acute lower limb ischaemia 33
Aortic dissection 34
Abdominal aortic aneurysm 35
Varicose veins 36
Deep vein thrombosis 37
D Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

4 Cardiac pathology39
Congenital heart disease 40
Angina pectoris 42
Unstable angina 43
Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction 44
ST-elevation myocardial infarction 46
Left ventricular failure 48
Right ventricular failure 50
Valvular heart disease 51
Cardiomyopathies 52
Infective endocarditis 53
Myocarditis 54
Pericarditis 55
5 Respiratory pathology57
Respiratory tract malformations 58
Benign sinonasal diseases 59
Sinonasal malignancies 60
Nasopharyngeal diseases 61
Laryngeal diseases 62
Respiratory failure 63
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 64 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

Bronchiectasis 65
Cystic fi brosis 66
Pulmonary thromboembolism 67
Pulmonary hypertension 68
Asthma 69
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 70
Bacterial pneumonia 72
Idiopathic pulmonary fi brosis 74
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis 76
Lung carcinoma 78
Pleural effusion 80
Pneumothorax 81
Malignant mesothelioma 82

6 Gastrointestinal pathology83
Gastrointestinal malformations 84
Oral cavity diseases 86
Salivary gland diseases 87
Oesophagitis 88
Oesophageal polyps and nodules 89
Oesophageal carcinoma 90
Gastritis 92
Gastric polyps 93
Gastric carcinoma 94 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours 96
Peptic duodenitis 97
Coeliac disease 98
Small bowel infarction 99
Intestinal infections 100
Intestinal obstruction 102
Acute appendicitis 103
Crohn’s disease 104
Ulcerative colitis 105
Microscopic colitis 106
Colorectal polyps 108

Colorectal carcinoma 110 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology
Diverticular disease 112
Anal pathology 113
7 Hepatobiliary pathology115
Acute viral hepatitis 116
Chronic viral hepatitis 117
Alcoholic liver disease 118
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 119
Autoimmune hepatitis 120
Primary biliary cirrhosis 121
Primary sclerosing cholangitis 122
Wilson’s disease 123
Hereditary haemochromatosis 124
Cirrhosis 125

Benign liver lesions 126
Hepatocellular carcinoma 127
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma 128
Cholecystitis 129
Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma 130
8 Pancreatic pathology131
Pancreatic malformations 132
Acute pancreatitis 133
Chronic pancreatitis 134
Pancreatic ductal carcinoma 135
Pancreatic endocrine tumours 136
Pancreatic cystic tumours 138
Acinar cell carcinoma 139
9 Renal pathology141
Chronic kidney disease 142 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology
Acute renal failure 144
Hypertensive nephropathy 145
Diabetic nephropathy 146
Minimal change disease 147
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 148

Renal cell carcinoma 168
Childhood renal tumours 170
Urothelial carcinomas 172
Benign prostatic hyperplasia 174
Prostate carcinoma 176
Testicular germ cell tumours 178
Testicular non-germ cell tumours 180
Paratesticular diseases 181
Urethral diseases 182
Penile diseases 183
Scrotal diseases 184
11 Gynaecological pathology185
Vulval skin diseases 186
Benign vulval tumours 187
Vulval carcinoma 188
Vaginal infections 190
Vaginal tumours 191
Cervical carcinoma 192
Cervical screening 194
Endometriosis 195
Endometrial carcinoma 196 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

Uterine leiomyomas 198
Functional ovarian cysts 200
Polycystic ovarian syndrome 202
Benign ovarian tumours 204
Ovarian carcinomas 206
Pelvic infl ammatory disease 208
Ectopic pregnancy 209
Hydatidiform moles 210
Pre-eclampsia 212
12 Breast pathology215
Duct ectasia 216
Acute mastitis 217
Fat necrosis 218
Fibrocystic change 219 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

Fibroadenoma 220
Intraductal papilloma 222
Radial scar 223
Proliferative breast diseases 224
Ductal carcinoma in situ 225
Invasive breast carcinomas 226
Breast screening 228
Male breast diseases 229
13 Endocrine pathology231
Diabetes mellitus 232
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 234
Graves’ disease 235
Nodular goitre 236
Follicular adenoma 237
Thyroid carcinomas 238
Parathyroid hyperplasia 240
Parathyroid adenoma 241
Parathyroid carcinoma 242
Addison’s disease 243
Adrenal cortical adenoma 244
Adrenal cortical carcinoma 246

Phaeochromocytoma 248 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology
Neuroblastoma 250
Pituitary adenoma 252
14 Haematopathology255
Iron defi ciency anaemia 256
Anaemia of chronic disease 257
Megaloblastic anaemias 258
Hereditary spherocytosis 259
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase defi ciency 260
Thalassaemias 261
Sickle cell disorders 262
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 264
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 265

von Willebrand disease 266
Haemophilia 267
Thrombophilia 268
Acute B-lymphoblastic leukaemia 269
Acute myeloid leukaemias 270
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia 271
Chronic myelogenous leukaemia 272
Polycythaemia vera 273
Essential thrombocythaemia 274
Primary myelofi brosis 275
Myelodysplastic syndromes 276 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology
Follicular lymphoma 277
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 278
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma 279
Mantle cell lymphoma 280
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma 281
Plasma cell myeloma 282
Primary amyloidosis 283
15 Skin pathology285
Eczemas 286
Psoriasis 287
Lichen planus 288
Erythema multiforme Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

Granuloma annulare 290
Pemphigus vulgaris 291
Bullous pemphigoid 292
Dermatitis herpetiformis 293
Erythema nodosum 294
Pyoderma gangrenosum 295
Skin infections 296
Benign cutaneous lumps 298
Basal cell carcinoma 300
Squamous cell carcinoma 301
Malignant melanoma 302
Mycosis fungoides 304

16 Osteoarticular pathology305
Osteoarticular malformations 306
Osteoporosis 307
Paget’s disease 308
Osteomalacia 309
Osteomyelitis 310
Benign bone tumours 311
Malignant bone tumours 312
Osteoarthritis 313
Rheumatoid arthritis 314
Spondyloarthropathies 315
Crystal arthropathies 316
Septic arthritis 317
Soft tissue tumours 318
17 Neuropathology321
Nervous system malformations 322
Epilepsy 323
Head injury 324
Cerebral infarction 325
Intracerebral haemorrhage 326
Subarachnoid haemorrhage 328 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

Meningitis 330
Cerebral infections 331
Multiple sclerosis 332
Alzheimer’s disease 333
Dementia with Lewy bodies 334
Parkinson’s disease 335
Huntington’s disease 336
Motor neurone disease 337
Creutzfeldt–Jacob disease 338
Central nervous system neoplasms 340
Guillain–Barré syndrome

Myasthenia gravis 343
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xix DETAILED CONTENTS
18 Multisystem diseases345
Systemic lupus erythematosus 346
Systemic sclerosis 348
Sarcoidosis 349
Vasculitis 350
Index 351 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

About the Author – Oxford Handbook of Clinical Pathology

James Carton, is a Consultant Histopathologist at Imperial College Healthcare, NHS Trust, London, UK

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