Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice

Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks pdf

Download Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks – In this book (Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks), the authors describe the fundamental concepts and practical aspects of wireless sensor networks. The book provides a comprehensive view to this rapidly evolving field, including its many novel applications, ranging from protecting civil infrastructure to pervasive health monitoring.

Using detailed examples and illustrations, this book provides an inside track on the current state of the technology.

Download Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks

The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, several node architectures, applications and operating systems are discussed. In Part II, the basic architectural frameworks, including the key building blocks required for constructing large-scale, energy-efficient sensor networks are presented. In Part III, the challenges and approaches pertaining to local and global management strategies are presented – this includes topics on power management, sensor node localization, time synchronization, and security. At the end of each chapter, the authors provide practical exercises to help students strengthen their grip on the subject. There are more than 200 exercises altogether.

Key Features: Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Offers a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical and practical concepts pertaining to wireless sensor networks
  • Explains the constraints and challenges of wireless sensor network design; and discusses the most promising solutions
  • Provides an in-depth treatment of the most critical technologies for sensor network communications, power management, security, and programming
  • Reviews the latest research results in sensor network design, and demonstrates how the individual components fit together to build complex sensing systems for a variety of application scenarios
  • Includes an accompanying website containing solutions to exercises

This book serves as an introductory text to the field of wireless sensor networks at both graduate and advanced undergraduate level, but it will also appeal to researchers and practitioners wishing to learn about sensor network technologies and their application areas, including environmental monitoring, protection of civil infrastructure, health care, precision agriculture, traffic control, and homeland security.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

About the Series Editors xv

Preface xvii

Part One: INTRODUCTION

1 Motivation for a Network of Wireless Sensor Nodes 3

1.1 Definitions and Background 4

1.2 Challenges and Constraints 9

2 Applications 17

2.1 Structural Health Monitoring 17

2.2 Traffic Control 26

2.3 Health Care 30

2.4 Pipeline Monitoring 35

2.5 Precision Agriculture 36

2.6 Active Volcano 38

2.7 Underground Mining 40

3 Node Architecture 47

3.1 The Sensing Subsystem 48

3.2 The Processor Subsystem 51

3.3 Communication Interfaces 58

3.4 Prototypes 62

4 Operating Systems 69

4.1 Functional Aspects 70

4.2 Nonfunctional Aspects 73

4.3 Prototypes 75

4.4 Evaluation 88

Part Two: BASIC ARCHITECTURAL FRAMEWORK

5 Physical Layer 95

5.1 Basic Components 95

5.2 Source Encoding 96

5.3 Channel Encoding 101

5.4 Modulation 106

6 Medium Access Control 125

6.1 Overview 125

6.2 Wireless MAC Protocols 128

6.3 Characteristics of MAC Protocols in Sensor Networks 133

6.4 Contention-Free MAC Protocols 135

6.5 Contention-Based MAC Protocols 144

6.6 Hybrid MAC Protocols 154

6.7 Summary 157

7 Network Layer 163

7.1 Overview 163

7.2 Routing Metrics 165

7.3 Flooding and Gossiping 168

7.4 Data-Centric Routing 170

7.5 Proactive Routing 176

7.6 On-Demand Routing 178

7.7 Hierarchical Routing 180

7.8 Location-Based Routing 183

7.9 QoS-Based Routing Protocols 192

7.10 Summary 196

Part Three: NODE AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT

8 Power Management 207

8.1 Local Power Management Aspects 208

8.2 Dynamic Power Management 216

8.3 Conceptual Architecture 222

9 Time Synchronization 229

9.1 Clocks and the Synchronization Problem 229

9.2 Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks 231

9.3 Basics of Time Synchronization 234

9.4 Time Synchronization Protocols 237

10 Localization 249

10.1 Overview 249

10.2 Ranging Techniques 250

10.3 Range-Based Localization 252

10.4 Range-Free Localization 258

10.5 Event-Driven Localization 262

11 Security 267

11.1 Fundamentals of Network Security 267

11.2 Challenges of Security in Wireless Sensor Networks 269

11.3 Security Attacks in Sensor Networks 270

11.4 Protocols and Mechanisms for Security 274

11.5 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Security 280

11.6 Summary 281

12 Sensor Network Programming 285

12.1 Challenges in Sensor Network Programming 285

12.2 Node-Centric Programming 286

12.3 Macroprogramming 293

12.4 Dynamic Reprogramming 295

12.5 Sensor Network Simulators 297

Exercises 299

References 300

Index 303

Preface – Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks

Rapid advances in the areas of sensor design, information technologies, and wireless networks have paved the way for the proliferation of wireless sensor networks. These networks have the potential to interface the physical world with the virtual (computing) world on an unprecedented scale and provide practical usefulness in developing a large number of applications, including the protection of civil infrastructures, habitat monitoring, precision agriculture, toxic gas detection, supply chain management, and health care. However, the design of wireless sensor networks introduces formidable challenges, since the required body of knowledge encompasses a whole range of topics in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as computer science. Wireless sensor networks are currently being offered as a subject at advanced undergraduate and graduate levels at many universities around the world. Moreover, they are the focus of countless graduate theses and student projects. Therefore, this book is primarily written as a textbook aimed at students of engineering and computer science. It provides an introduction into the fundamental concepts and building blocks of wireless sensor network design. An attempt has been made to maintain a balance between theory and practice, as well as established practices and the latest developments. At the end of each chapter, a number of practical questions and exercises are given to help the students to assess their understanding of the main concepts and arguments presented in the chapter. Furthermore, the chapters and parts of the book are sufficiently modular to provide flexibility in course design. The book will also be useful to the professional interested in this field. It is suitable for selfstudy and can serve as an essential reference. For such a reader, the material can be viewed as a tutorial in the basic concepts and surveys of recent research results and technological developments.

Structure of the Book

This book provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and principles of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and a survey of protocols, algorithms, and technologies at different layers of a sensor system, including the network protocol stack, middleware, and application level. The text is broken into three parts. In Part One, Introduction, Chapter 1 provides an overview of WSN applications, sensor nodes, and basic system structure. Chapter 2 continues the introduction into the WSN domain by providing an overview of representative sensor network applications. Chapter 3 presents different node architectures and discusses in detail the sensing and processing subsystems as well as communication interfaces. Moreover, it provides several examples of representative prototype implementations. Chapter 4 Preface describes functional and nonfunctional aspects of operating systems and provides a survey of state-of-the-art examples. Part Two, Basic Architectural Framework, provides a detailed discussion of protocols and algorithms used at different network protocol layers in sensor systems. The design choices at these layers significantly impact the operation and resource efficiency of sensor nodes and networks. Chapter 5 begins this discussion with an introduction into physical layer architectures and concepts. Since the wireless medium is shared between many sensor nodes, MAC-layer protocols are required to arbitrate access to the wireless channels. MAC-layer solutions are discussed in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 discusses multi-hop communications in WSNs and the associated challenges. It also surveys existing and proposed routing protocols. Part Three, Node and Network Management, discusses several additional techniques and presents solutions for a variety of challenges. Chapter 8 begins the discussion with an overview of power management techniques for wireless sensor networks. When multiple sensor nodes observe the same event in the physical world, it is important to correctly correlate these observations from the different sensors. This requires the clocks of the sensor nodes to be synchronized with each other. Synchronized clocks are also required by a variety of protocols and algorithms, e.g., many MAC protocols rely on accurate timing to ensure that no two nodes transmit packets at the same time. Therefore, Chapter 9 introduces the concept of time synchronization and provides an overview of several synchronization strategies. For many sensor network applications, it is essential that sensor nodes estimate their own position, either using absolute coordinates (e.g., using GPS) or relative to other nodes or landmarks in the environment. Chapter 10 presents a variety of localization strategies and compares their tradeoffs. Wireless sensor networks pose several security challenges due to the nature of many sensor applications (military, emergency response) and the unique characteristics of sensor networks (e.g., scale and unattended operation). Therefore, security challenges and defenses against attacks on sensor networks are discussed in Chapter 11. Finally, Chapter 12 concludes the book with a description of development environments and programming techniques for sensor networks, including an overview of frequently used sensor network simulators.

About the Author

Professor Dargie completed his BSc in Electrical and Electronics Technology at Nazareth Technical College, Ethiopia, and obtained an MSc in Electrical Engineering at Kaiserslautern University of Technology, Germany. He completed his PhD in Computer Engineering at Dresden University of Technology, Germany, where he works today as a Researcher for the Faculty of Computer Science.

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