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Tropical Dermatology

Tropical Dermatology – In an increasingly global community, the rapid adaptation of microorganisms has facilitated the return of old communicable diseases and the emergence of new ones. Tropical Dermatology, 2nd Edition, provides a practical, highly illustrated approach to the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of tropical skin diseases. In a concise and user-friendly format, it offers authoritative coverage of epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathology, laboratory tests, management, and prevention for both common and rare conditions.

Tropical Dermatology Features

  • Examines the full range of tropical skin diseases in an easy-to-reference format, with consistently organized, templated chapters.
  • Structures clinical guidance by disease rather than by microbe or “bug.”
  • Covers the key issues for travelers, important considerations for people working in the tropics, and non-infectious conditions.
  • Provides authoritative guidance for dermatologists, infectious disease specialists, and travel medicine physicians.
  • Includes new chapters on Tungiasis, Ebola and Zika virus.
  • Features updates on emerging diseases and new therapies throughout.
  • Includes brand-new, “hard-to-find” clinical images, for a total of more than 650 full-color illustrations throughout.
  • Integrates the knowledge and experience of new international contributors, including recognized experts in dermatology from the United States, Europe, South America, Africa, and Asia.
  • Expert Consult eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience allows you to search all of the text, figures, images, and references from the book on a variety of devices.

Preface – Tropical Dermatology

During the decade since the publication of the first edition of Tropical Dermatology, we have seen outbreaks of tropical infectious diseases in temperate parts of the world that local physicians and other health care workers expected to encounter only in textbooks – for example, diseases caused by the Ebola virus in the United States of America and Europe, as well as Chikungunya and Zika viruses throughout the Western Hemisphere. These arboviruses have followed a path similar to that taken by the West Nile virus in the late 1990s. During the past year, however, we have also learned that insect vectors (e.g. mosquitoes) are no longer the only source of arbovirus infections (i.e. sexual transmission of the Zika virus). Furthermore, tropical diseases such as dengue have spread further into temperate locations. Tropical Dermatology

In this edition we have expanded the sections of this book dealing with these emerging infectious diseases and have updated sections on other infectious diseases as well as noninfectious cutaneous problems in the tropical world. Patients with tropical diseases, however, are presenting to physicians in temperate areas with increasing frequency due to other reasons, such as increased travel to tropical countries for work or pleasure. In addition, wars as well as social and economic difficulties are resulting in more refugees and immigrants fleeing their homelands to seek refuge in temperate counties – as the ongoing Syrian war so sadly illustrates and has resulted in a marked increase of leishmaniasis cases in Europe. Likewise, adoptees are frequently born in tropical lands and may be asymptomatic carriers of infectious diseases. Some tropical diseases were common in temperate lands until the 21st century, but became much less common owing to vaccination (e.g. measles, rubella, mumps and chickenpox). Measles, which is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in the tropics, where malnutrition is common but vaccination is rare, is becoming less prevalent as a result of improved conditions.Tropical Dermatology

Paradoxically, however, the prevalence of measles has increased in the past 2 years in the United States of America owing to non-compliance with recommended vaccinations. Most cases of measles in North America and Europe are imported, often resulting from unvaccinated citizens of these areas returning from the tropics and spreading this highly infectious virus to others. Although infectious diseases receive the most media attention, non-infectious diseases are more often the cause of cutaneous problems in the returned traveler. Examples of these non-infectious sources of skin problems include excessive sun exposure and mucocutaneous reactions to medications taken for prophylaxis or therapy, including phototoxic reactions. Exposure to tropical plants may cause allergic reactions or make the patient photosensitive (e.g. photophytodermatitis). Contacts with invertebrates and other animals as well as marine and freshwater organisms are also frequent causes of cutaneous complaints.Tropical Dermatology

It is important to note, however, that most physician visits by the returned traveler for mucocutaneous problems are unrelated to the patient’s travel or national origin, but rather are the same conditions seen daily in patients who have never left their local communities. Therefore, the goal of this second edition of Tropical Dermatology is to provide a guide for health care workers to the mucocutaneous manifestations of tropical diseases. In order to formulate a differential diagnosis, the morphology and distribution pattern of the skin lesions must be considered in view of the patient’s symptoms, physical examination, general medical condition and exposure history as well as the vaccination record and current medications. Laboratory and histology results can often be used to reach a diagnosis and help determine the appropriate management.

Stephen K. Tyring, MD, PhD Houston Omar Lupi, MD, MSc, PhD Rio de Janeiro Ulrich R. Hengge, MD, MBA Düsseldorf

Content – Tropical Dermatology

Syndromal tropical dermatology / Stephen K. Tyring —
Issues for travelers / David B. Huang, Jashin J. Wu and Charles D. Ericsson —
Working in the tropics / Ross Barnetson and Anthony White —
Trypanosomiasis / Ivan Semenovitch and Omar Lupi —
Leishmaniasis / Jackson Machado-Pinto and Rubem David Azulay —
Cutaneous manifestations of infection by free-living amebas / Francisco G. Bravo [and others] —
Nematodal helminths / Sam Kalungi [and others] —
Other helminths / Francis T. Assimwe [and others] —
Cestodes / Jackson Machado-Pinto —
Trematodes / Peter Leutscher and Pascal Magnussen —
HIV and HIV-associated disorders / Janek Maniar and Ratnakar Kamath —
Hemorrhagic fevers / Stephen K. Tyring [and others] —
Poxviruses / Joachim Richter, Karl Heinz Richter and Dieter Häussinger —
Measles / Beatriz Meza-Valencia and Denise M. Demers —
HTLV-1 / Jennifer Aranda and Maria L. Turner —
Tropical manifestations of common viral infections / Jashin J. Wu [and others] —
Superficial mycoses and dermatophytes / Seema Patel [and others] —
Subcutaneous mycoses / Antônio Carlos Francescone do Valle [and others] —
Systemic fungal infections / Clarisse Zaitz [and others] —
Meningococcal disease / Charles Moon and Jeffrey Meffert —
Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyodermas / Paul M. Benson and Ulrich R. Hengge —
Mycobacteria / Leninha Valério do Nascimento [and others] —
Ricketsial infections / Katie R. Pang [and others] —
Ehrlichioses / Juan P. Olano —
Bartonellosis / Francisco G. Bravo —
Bacterial sexually transmitted disease / Omar Lupi [and others] —
Other spirochetoses / Cláudia Pires do Amaral Maia [and others] —
Anthrax, plague, diphtheria, trachoma and miscellaneous bacteria / Stephen K. Tyring [and others] —
Scabies / Bart Currie and Ulrich R. Hengge —
Pediculosis / Christine Ko and Dirk M. Elston —
Myiasis / Fábio Francescone and Omar Lupi —
Nutritional diseases / Ana Maria Mosca de Cerqueira and Wânia Mara del Favero —
Fogo selvagem / Evandro Rivitti [and others] —
Pigmentary disorders / Antoine Mahé —
Environmental causes of dermatitis / Joao Paulo Niemeyer-Corbellini [and others].

About the Author

Steven Tyring

Affiliations and Expertise

Clinical Professor, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX

Omar Lupi

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Dermatology, Universidade Fereral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; Professor of Internal Medicine, Universidade do Estdo do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Adjunct Professor of Dermatology (UNI-RIO), Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Professor of Dermatology – Post-Graduate Course of Dermatology, Instito de Dermatologia Prof. Azulay/SCMRJ, PGRJ and UFRJ

Ulrich Hengge

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Dermatology, Allergology and Venereology, Dept. of Dermatology, University of Duesseldorf


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