Download Physics 104 Lecture Note by Dr N.N. Jibiri

Physics 104 Lecture Note by Dr N.N. Jibiri


Electricity and magnetism are manifestations of a single underlying electromagnetic force. Electromagnetism is a branch of physical science that describes the interactions of electricity and magnetism, both as separate phenomena and as a singular electromagnetic force.

A magnetic fieldis created by a moving electric current and a magnetic field can induce movement of charges (electric current). The rules of electromagnetism also explain geomagnetic and electromagnetic phenomena by explaining how charged particles of atoms interact.

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Before the advent of technology, electromagnetism was perhaps most strongly experienced in the form of lightning , and electromagnetic radiation in the form of light. Ancient man kindled fires that he thought were kept alive in trees struck by lightning. Magnetism has long been employed for navigation in the compass. In fact, it is known that Earth‘s magnetic poles have exchanged positions in the past.

Some of the rules of electrostatics, the study of electric charges at rest, were first noted by the ancient Romans, who observed the way a brushed comb would attract particles. It is now known that electric charges occur in two different forms, positive charges and negative charges. Like charges repel each other, and differing types attract.

The force that attract positive charges to negative charges weakens with distance, but is intrinsically very strong—up to 40 times stronger than the pull of gravity at the surface of the earth. This fact can easily be demonstrated by a small magnet that can hold or suspend an object. The small magnet exerts a force at least equal to the pull of gravity from the entire Earth.

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