Download Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics 8th Edition

Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics PDF

Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics – Part of the highly regarded Nelson family of pediatric references, Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics, 8th Edition, is a concise, focused resource for medical students, pediatric residents, PAs, and nurse practitioners. Ideal for pediatric residencies, clerkships, and exams, this 8th Edition offers a readable, full-color format; high-yield, targeted chapters; and new features that make it even more user-friendly for today’s in-training professionals or practitioners.

  • Focuses on the core knowledge you need to know, while also providing complete coverage of recent advances in pediatrics. Coverage includes normal childhood growth and development, as well as the diagnosis, management, and prevention of common pediatric diseases and disorders.
  • Includes new Pearls for Practitioners bullets at the end of each section, providing key clinical points and treatment information.
  • Features well written, high-yield coverage throughout, following COMSEP curriculum guidelines relevant to your pediatric clerkship or rotation.
  • Uses a full-color format with images and numerous new tables throughout, so you can easily visualize complex information.
  • Provides real-world insights from chapter authors who are also Clerkship Directors, helping you gain the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed both in caring for patients and in preparing for clerkship or in-service examinations.
  • Includes Student Consult access which features the full contents of the book, now integrated with select decision-making algorithms from Pediatric Decision-Making Strategies by Pomeranz et al. (ISBN: 978-0-323-29854-4), online at Student Consult.

Table of Contents – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Section #

1

The Profession of Pediatrics

1

Population and Culture

2

Professionalism

3

Ethics and Legal Issues

4

Palliative Care and End-of-Life Issues

2

Growth and Development

5

Normal Growth

6

Disorders of Growth

7

Normal Development

8

Disorders of Development

9

Evaluation of the Well Child

10

Evaluation of the Child with Special Needs

3

Behavioral Disorders

11 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Crying and Colic

12

Temper Tantrums

13

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

14

Control of Elimination

15

Normal Sleep and Pediatric Sleep Disorders

4

Psychiatric Disorders

16

Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

17

Anxiety Disorders

18

Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders

19

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

20

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

5 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Psychosocial Issues

21

Failure to Thrive

22

Child Abuse and Neglect

23

Homosexuality and Gender Identity

24

Family Structure and Function

25

Violence

26

Divorce, Separation, and Bereavement

6

Pediatric Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders

27

Diet of the Normal Infant

28

Diet of the Normal Child and Adolescent

29 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Obesity

30

Pediatric Undernutrition

31

Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies

7

Fluids and Electrolytes

32

Maintenance Fluid Therapy

33

Dehydration and Replacement Therapy

34

Parenteral Nutrition

35

Sodium Disorders

36

Potassium Disorders

37 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Acid-Base Disorders

8

The Acutely Ill or Injured Child

38

Assessment and Resuscitation

39

Respiratory Failure

40

Shock

41

Injury Prevention

42

Major Trauma

43

Drowning

44

Burns

45 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Poisoning

46

Sedation and Analgesia

9

Human Genetics and Dysmorphology

47

Patterns of Inheritance

48

Genetic Assessment

49

Chromosomal Disorders

50

The Approach to the Dysmorphic Child

10

Metabolic Disorders

51

Metabolic Assessment

52

Carbohydrate Disorders

53

Amino Acid Disorders

54 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Organic Acid Disorders

55

Fat Metabolic Disorders

56

Lysosomal and Peroxisomal Disorders

57

Mitochondrial Disorders

11

Fetal and Neonatal Medicine

58

Assessment of the Mother, Fetus, and Newborn

59

Maternal Diseases Affecting the Newborn

60

Diseases of the Fetus

61

Respiratory Diseases of the Newborn

62

Anemia and Hyperbilirubinemia

63

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

64

Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy, Intracranial Hemorrhage, and Seizures

65

Sepsis and Meningitis

66

Congenital Infections

12

Adolescent Medicine

67

Overview and Assessment of Adolescents

68

Well-Adolescent Care

69

Adolescent Gynecology

70

Eating Disorders

71

Substance Abuse

13

Immunology

72

Immunologic Assessment

73

Lymphocyte Disorders

74 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Neutrophil Disorders

75

Complement System

76

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

14

Allergy

77

Allergy Assessment

78

Asthma

79

Allergic Rhinitis

80

Atopic Dermatitis

81

Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis

82

Serum Sickness

83

Insect Allergies

84

Adverse Reactions to Foods

85

Adverse Reactions to Drugs

15

Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood

86

Rheumatic Assessment

87 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

88

Kawasaki Disease

89

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

90

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

91

Juvenile Dermatomyositis

92

Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes

16

Infectious Diseases

93

Infectious Disease Assessment

94

Immunization and Prophylaxis

95 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Anti-Infective Therapy

96

Fever Without a Focus

97

Infections Characterized by Fever and Rash

98

Cutaneous Infections

99

Lymphadenopathy

100

Meningitis

101

Encephalitis

102

Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

103

Pharyngitis

104

Sinusitis

105

Otitis Media

106

Otitis Externa

107

Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)

108

Pertussis

109

Bronchiolitis

110

Pneumonia

111

Infective Endocarditis

112 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Acute Gastroenteritis

113

Viral Hepatitis

114

Urinary Tract Infection

115

Vulvovaginitis

116

Sexually Transmitted Infections

117

Osteomyelitis

118

Infectious Arthritis

119

Ocular Infections

120

Infection in the Immunocompromised Person

121

Infections Associated with Medical Devices

122

Zoonoses and Vector Borne Infections

123

Parasitic Diseases

124

Tuberculosis

125

HIV and AIDS

17

The Digestive System

126

Digestive System Assessment

127 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Oral Cavity

128

Esophagus and Stomach

129

Intestinal Tract

130

Liver Disease

131

Pancreatic Disease

132

Peritonitis

18

The Respiratory System

Intro

Introduction

133

Respiratory System Assessment

134

Control of Breathing

135

Upper Airway Obstruction

136

Lower Airway, Parenchymal, and Pulmonary Vascular Diseases

137

Cystic Fibrosis

138

Chest Wall and Pleura

19 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

The Cardiovascular System

139

Cardiovascular System Assessment

140

Syncope

141

Chest Pain

142

Dysrhythmias

143

Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

144

Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

145

Heart Failure

146

Rheumatic Fever

147

Cardiomyopathies

148

Pericarditis

20 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Hematology

149

Hematology Assessment

150

Anemia

151

Hemostatic Disorders

152

Blood Component Therapy

21

Oncology

153

Oncology Assessment

154

Principles of Cancer Treatment

155

Leukemia

156

Lymphoma

157

Central Nervous System Tumors

158

Neuroblastoma

159 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Wilms Tumor

160

Sarcomas

22

Neprhology and Urology

161

Nephrology and Urology Assessment

162

Nephrotic Syndrome and Proteinuria

163

Glomerulonephritis and Hematuria

164

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

165

Acute and Chronic Renal Failure

166

Hypertension

167

Vesicoureteral Reflux

168 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities of the Urinary Tract

169

Other Urinary Tract and Genital Disorders

23

Endocrinology

170

Endocrinology Assessment

171

Diabetes Mellitus

172

Hypoglycemia

173

Short Stature

174

Disorders of Puberty

175

Thyroid Disease

176

Disorders of Parathyroid Bone and Mineral Endocrinology

177

Disorders of Sexual Development

178

Adrenal Gland Dysfunction

24

Neurology

179

Neurology Assessment

180

Headache and Migraine

181

Seizures (Paroxysmal Disorders)

182

Weakness and Hypotonia

183

Ataxia and Movement Disorders

184 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Altered Mental Status

185

Neurodegenerative Disorders

186

Neurocutaneous Disorders

187

Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System

25

Dermatology

188

Dermatology Assessment

189

Acne

190

Atopic Dermatitis

191

Contact Dermatitis

192

Seborrheic Dermatitis

193 Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Pigmented Lesions

194

Vascular Anomalies

195

Erythema Multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

196

Cutaneous Infestations

26

Orthopedics

197

Orthopedics Assessment

198

Fractures

199

Hip

200

Lower Extremity and Knee

201

Foot

202

Spine

203

Upper Extremity

204

Benign Bone Tumors and Cystic Lesions

Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden
our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become
necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and
using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information
or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom
they have a professional responsibility.

With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most
current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to
be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administra¬
tion, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and
knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each
individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume
any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability,
negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas
contained in the material herein.

CONTRIBUTORS

Ahmeneh Ghavam, MD

Pediatric Critical Care Fellow
Medical College of Wisconsin
Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Profession of Pediatrics

Clarence W. Gowen Jr., MD

Professor and EVMS Foundation Chair
Department of Pediatrics
Eastern Virginia Medical School;

Senior Vice-President for Academic Affairs
Children’s Hospital of (The) King’s Daughters
Norfolk, Virginia
Fetal and Neonatal Medicine

Larry A. Greenbaum, MD, PhD

Marcus Professor of Pediatrics
Director, Division of Pediatric Nephrology
Emory University School of Medicine
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia
Fluids and Electrolytes

Hilary M. Haftel, MD, MHPE

Professor of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Internal
Medicine, and Learning Health Sciences
Associate Chair and Director, Pediatric Education
Director, Pediatric Rheumatology
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, Michigan – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics
Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood

MaryKathleen Heneghan, MD

Attending Physician
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
Advocate Children’s Hospital
Park Ridge, Illinois

Endocrinology

Alana M. Karp, MD

Pediatric Nephrology Fellow
Emory University School of Medicine
Atlanta, Georgia

Fluids and Electrolytes

Mary Kim, MD

Department of Dermatology
Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Dermatology

Matthew P. Kronman, MD, MSCE

Associate Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
University of Washington School of Medicine;

Associate Medical Director of Infection Prevention
Seattle Children’s Hospital
Seattle, Washington
Infectious Diseases

K. Jane Lee, MD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Special Needs
Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Acutely III or Injured Child

David A. Levine, MD, FAAP

Professor of Pediatrics
Chief, Division of Predoctoral Education
Morehouse School of Medicine
Atlanta, Georgia

Growth and Development

Paul A. Levy, MD

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Pathology
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Children’s Hospital at Montefiore
Bronx, New York

Human Genetics and Dysmorphology

John D. Mahan, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

The Ohio State University College of Medicine;

Director, Metabolic Bone Clinic
Medical Director, Transplant Program
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, Ohio
Nephrology and Urology

Karen J. Marcdante, MD

Professor – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics
Medical College of Wisconsin
Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Profession of Pediatrics

Robert W. Marion, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women’s Health
Albert Einstein College of Medicine;

Chief Emeritus, Divisions of Genetic Medicine and
Developmental Medicine
Department of Pediatrics
Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, New York

Human Genetics and Dysmorphology

Maria L. Marquez, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

MedStar Georgetown University Hospital;

Associate Dean, Reflection and Professional Development
Georgetown University School of Medicine;

Medical Director
Mary’s Center Fort Totten
Washington, DC

Pediatric Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders

CONTRIBUTORS

VII

Susan G. Marshall, MD

Professor and Vice Chair for Education

Department of Pediatrics

University of Washington School of Medicine;

Director of Medical Education
Seattle Childrens Hospital
Seattle, Washington
Respiratory System

Thomas W. McLean, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center

Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Oncology – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Thida Ong, MD

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
University of Washington School of Medicine;

Associate Director, Cystic Fibrosis Center
Seattle Childrens Hospital
Seattle, Washington
Respiratory System

Hiren P. Patel, MD

Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics
The Ohio State University College of Medicine;

Chief, Section of Nephrology
Medical Director, Kidney Transplant Program
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, Ohio
Nephrology and Urology

Caroline R. Paul, MD

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public
Health

Madison, Wisconsin

Behavioral Disorders

Tara L. Petersen, MD

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Critical Care
Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Acutely III or Injured Child

Thomas B. Russell, MD

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Oncology

Jocelyn Huang Schiller, MD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Neurology – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Daniel S. Schneider, MD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Cardiology
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Charlottesville, Virginia

Cardiovascular System

J. Paul Scott, MD

Professor of Pediatrics
Medical College of Wisconsin;

Medical Director, Wisconsin Sickle Cell Center
The Childrens Research Institute of the Children’s Hospital
of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Hematology

Renee A. Shellhaas, MD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Neurology – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Paola Palma Sisto, MD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Department of Pediatrics
Division of Endocrinology
Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Endocrinology

Amanda Striegl, MD, MS

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
University of Washington School of Medicine;

Medical Director, Respiratory Care
Seattle Children’s Hospital
Seattle, Washington
Respiratory System

J. Channing Tassone, MD

Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
Medical College of Wisconsin;

Clinical Vice President, Surgical Services and Anesthesia
Section Chief, Pediatric Orthopedics
Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Orthopedics

James W. Verbsky, MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology/
Immunology – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Medical Director, Clinical Immunology Research Laboratory

Medical Director, Clinical and Translational Research

Medical College of Wisconsin

Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Immunology

Kristen K. Volkman, MD

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Allergy and Immunology)
and Medicine

Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Allergy

CONTRIBUTORS

viii

Surabhi B. Vora, MD, MPH

Assistant Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
University of Washington School of Medicine
Seattle Childrens Hospital
Seattle, Washington

Infectious Diseases – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Colleen M. Wallace, MD

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Division of Hospitalist Medicine

Director, Pediatrics Clerkship

Director, Program for Humanities in Medicine

Washington University School of Medicine

St. Louis, Missouri

Behavioral Disorders

Kevin D. Walter, MD, FAAP

Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery and Pediatrics
Medical College of Wisconsin;

Program Director, Sports Medicine
Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Orthopedics

PREFACE: Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

It has been said that knowledge doubles every two years and computing power doubles
every eighteen months. These dynamic changes will allow us to use technology in new ways
as quickly as we can learn them. The interface of medicine and technology will help us
provide better, safer care with each passing year as the amazing advancements of our scientist
colleagues further delineate the pathophysiology and mechanisms of diseases. Our goal as
the editors and authors of this textbook is not only to provide the classic, foundational
knowledge we use every day, but to include recent advances in a readable, searchable, and
concise text for medical learners as they move toward their careers as physicians and advanced
practice providers.

We have once again provided updated information, including the advances that have
occurred since the last edition. We believe this integration will help you investigate the
common and classic pediatric disorders in a time-honored, logical format, helping you to
both acquire knowledge and apply knowledge to your patients. The authors again include
our colleagues who serve as clerkship directors so that medical students and advanced
practice providers can gain the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in caring for
patients and in preparing for clerkship or in-service examinations.

We are honored to be part of the journey of the thousands of learners who rotate through
pediatrics and of those who will become new providers of pediatric care in the years to come.

Karen J. Marcdante, MD
Robert M. Kliegman, MD

IX

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The editors profusely thank James Merritt, Jennifer Shreiner, Amanda Mincher, and their
team for their assistance and attention to detail. We also again thank our colleague, Carolyn
Redman, whose prompting, organizing, and overseeing of the process helped us create this
new edition. Finally we thank our spouses for their patient support throughout the process.

  

Details – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

No. of pages: 832Language: EnglishCopyright: © Elsevier 2019Published: 29th March 2018Imprint: ElsevierPaperback ISBN: 9780323511452Paperback ISBN: 9780323527354eBook ISBN: 9780323528078eBook ISBN: 9780323528061eBook ISBN: 9780323528054

About the Author

Karen Marcdante

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Robert Kliegman

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Key Features – Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics

Here’s a quick overview of the important features offered in this book: Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics, 7th Edition

  • Get an effective overview of paediatrics with help fromthe concise text, a full-colour design, high-yield tables, and numerous images.
  • Take advantage of a wealth of images that capture the clinical manifestations and findings associated with Kawasaki disease, lupus, lymphoma, stroke, and many other disorders seen in children.

New to this Edition

  • Efficiently review essential, concise pediatric content with this popular extension of the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (ISBN: 978-1-4377-0755-7).
  • Focus on the core knowledge needed for your pediatric clerkship or rotation with coverage that follows the COMSEP curriculum guidelines.
  • Easily visualize complex aspects with a full-colour layout and images, as well as numerous tables throughout the text.
  • Access the full contents, now integrated with select decision-making algorithms from Pediatric Decision-Making Strategies by Pomeranz et al. (ISBN: 978-0-323-29854-4), online at Student Consult.
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