Download Mechatronics with Experiments, 2nd Edition

Mechatronics with Experiments PDF

Mechatronics with Experiments – Comprehensively covers the fundamental scientific principles and technologies that are used in the design of modern computer-controlled machines and processes.

  • Covers embedded microcontroller based design of machines
  • Includes MATLAB®/Simulink®-based embedded control software development
  • Considers electrohydraulic motion control systems, with extensive applications in construction     equipment industry
  • Discusses electric motion control, servo systems, and coordinated multi-axis automated motion   control for factory automation applications
  • Accompanied by a website hosting a solution manual 

Preface – Mechatronics with Experiments

This second edition of the textbook has the following modifications compared to the first edition: Twelve experiments have been added. The experiments require building of electronic interface circuits between the microcontroller and the electromechanical system, writing of real-time control code in C language, and testing and debugging the complete system to make it work. All of the chapters have been edited and more examples have been added where appropriate. A brief tutorial on MATLAB®/Simulink®/Stateflow is included. I would like to thank Paul Petralia, Tom Carter and Anne Hunt [Acquisitions Editor, Project Editor and Associate Commissioning Editor, respectively] at John Wiley and Sons for their patience and kind guidance throughout the process of writing this edition of the book.

Introduction – Mechatronics with Experiments

THE MECHATRONICS field consists of the synergistic integration of three distinct traditional engineering fields for system level design processes. These three fields are 1. mechanical engineering where the word “mecha” is taken from, 2. electrical or electronics engineering, where “tronics” is taken from, 3. computer science. The file of mechatronics is not simply the sum of these three major areas, but can be defined as the intersection of these areas when taken in the context of systems design (Figure 1.1). It is the current state of evolutionary change of the engineering fields that deal with the design of controlled electromechanical systems. A mechatronic system is a computer controlled mechanical system. Quite often, it is an embedded computer, not a general purpose computer, that is used for control decisions. The word mechatronics was first coined by engineers at Yaskawa Electric Company [1,2]. Virtually every modern electromechanical system has an embedded computer controller. Therefore, computer hardware and software issues (in terms of their application to the control of electromechanical systems) are part of the field of mechatronics. Had it not been for the widespread availability of low cost microcontrollers for the mass market, the field of mechatronics as we know it today would not exist. The availability of embedded microprocessors for the mass market at ever reducing cost and increasing performance makes the use of computer control in thousands of consumer products possible. Mechatronics with Experiments

The old model for an electromechanical product design team included 1. engineer(s) who design the mechanical components of a product, 2. engineer(s) who design the electrical components, such as actuators, sensors, amplifiers and so on, as well as the control logic and algorithms, 3. engineer(s) who design the computer hardware and software implementation to control the product in real-time. A mechatronics engineer is trained to do all of these three functions. In addition, the design process is not sequential with mechanical design followed by electrical and computer control system design, but rather all aspects (mechanical, electrical, and computer control) of design are carried out simultaneously for optimal product design. Mechatronics with Experiments

Clearly, mechatronics is not a new engineering discipline, but the current state of the evolutionary process of the engineering disciplines needed for design of electromechanical systems. The end product of a mechatronics engineer’s work is a working prototype of an embedded computer controlled electromechanical device or system

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE xi

ABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE xii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Case Study: Modeling and Control of Combustion Engines 16

1.2 Example: Electro-hydraulic Flight Control Systems for Commercial Airplanes 31

1.3 Embedded Control Software Development for Mechatronic Systems 38

1.4 Problems 43

CHAPTER 2 CLOSED LOOP CONTROL 45

2.1 Components of a Digital Control System 46

2.2 The Sampling Operation and Signal Reconstruction 48

2.3 Open Loop Control Versus Closed Loop Control 63

2.4 Performance Specifications for Control Systems 67

2.5 Time Domain and S-domain Correlation of Signals 69

2.6 Transient Response Specifications: Selection of Pole Locations 70

2.7 Steady-State Response Specifications 74

2.8 Stability of Dynamic Systems 76

2.9 Experimental Determination of Frequency Response 78

2.10 The Root Locus Method 89

2.11 Correlation Between Time Domain and Frequency Domain Information 93

2.12 Basic Feedback Control Types 97

2.13 Translation of Analog Control to Digital Control 125

2.14 Problems 128

CHAPTER 3 MECHANISMS FOR MOTION TRANSMISSION 133

3.1 Introduction 133

3.2 Rotary to Rotary Motion Transmission Mechanisms 136

3.3 Rotary to Translational Motion Transmission Mechanisms 139

3.4 Cyclic Motion Transmission Mechanisms 143

3.5 Shaft Misalignments and Flexible Couplings 153

3.6 Actuator Sizing 154

3.7 Homogeneous Transformation Matrices 162

3.8 A Case Study: Automotive Transmission as a “Gear Reducer” 172

3.9 Problems 201

CHAPTER 4 MICROCONTROLLERS 207

4.1 Embedded Computers versus Non-Embedded Computers 207

4.2 Basic Computer Model 214

4.3 Microcontroller Hardware and Software: PIC 18F452 218

4.4 Interrupts 235

4.5 Problems 243

CHAPTER 5 ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS FOR MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS 245

5.1 Introduction 245

5.2 Basics of Linear Circuits 245

5.3 Equivalent Electrical Circuit Methods 249

5.4 Impedance 252

5.5 Semiconductor Electronic Devices 260

5.6 Operational Amplifiers 282

5.7 Digital Electronic Devices 308

5.8 Digital and Analog I/O and Their Computer Interface 314

5.9 D/A and A/D Converters and Their Computer Interface 318

5.10 Problems 324

CHAPTER 6 SENSORS 329

6.1 Introduction to Measurement Devices 329

6.2 Measurement Device Loading Errors 333

6.3 Wheatstone Bridge Circuit 335

6.4 Position Sensors 339

6.5 Velocity Sensors 362

6.6 Acceleration Sensors 365

6.7 Strain, Force, and Torque Sensors 372

6.8 Pressure Sensors 376

6.9 Temperature Sensors 381

6.10 Flow Rate Sensors 385

6.11 Humidity Sensors 393

6.12 Vision Systems 394

6.13 GPS: Global Positioning System 397

6.14 Problems 403

CHAPTER 7 ELECTROHYDRAULIC MOTION CONTROL SYSTEMS 407

7.1 Introduction 407

7.2 Fundamental Physical Principles 425

7.3 Hydraulic Pumps 437

7.4 Hydraulic Actuators: Hydraulic Cylinder and Rotary Motor 457

7.5 Hydraulic Valves 461

7.6 Sizing of Hydraulic Motion System Components 507

7.7 Hydraulic Motion Axis Natural Frequency and Bandwidth Limit 518

7.8 Linear Dynamic Model of a One-Axis Hydraulic Motion System 520

7.9 Nonlinear Dynamic Model of One-Axis Hydraulic Motion System 527

7.10 Example: Open Center Hydraulic System – Force and Speed Modulation Curves in Steady State 571

7.11 Example: Hydrostatic Transmissions 576

7.12 Current Trends in Electrohydraulics 586

7.13 Case Studies 589

7.14 Problems 593

CHAPTER 8 ELECTRIC ACTUATORS: MOTOR AND DRIVE TECHNOLOGY 603

8.1 Introduction 603

8.2 Energy Losses in Electric Motors 629

8.3 Solenoids 633

8.4 DC Servo Motors and Drives 640

8.5 AC Induction Motors and Drives 659

8.6 Step Motors 670

8.7 Linear Motors 681

8.8 DC Motor: Electromechanical Dynamic Model 683

8.9 Problems 691

CHAPTER 9 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS 695

9.1 Introduction 695

9.2 Hardware Components of PLCs 697

9.3 Programming of PLCs 705

9.4 PLC Control System Applications 709

9.5 PLC Application Example: Conveyor and Furnace Control 712

9.6 Problems 714

CHAPTER 10 PROGRAMMABLE MOTION CONTROL SYSTEMS 717

10.1 Introduction 717

10.2 Design Methodology for PMC Systems 722

10.3 Motion Controller Hardware and Software 723

10.4 Basic Single-Axis Motions 724

10.5 Coordinated Motion Control Methods 729

10.6 Coordinated Motion Applications 735

10.7 Problems 747

CHAPTER 11 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS 749

11.1 Experiment 1: Basic Electrical Circuit Components and Kirchoff’s Voltage and Current Laws 749

11.2 Experiment 2: Transistor Operation: ON/OFF Mode and Linear Mode of Operation 754

11.3 Experiment 3: Passive First-Order RC Filters: Low Pass Filter and High Pass Filter 758

11.4 Experiment 4: Active First-Order Low Pass Filter with Op-Amps 762

11.5 Experiment 5: Schmitt Trigger With Variable Hysteresis using an Op-Amp Circuit 766

11.6 Experiment 6: Analog PID Control Using Op-Amps 770

11.7 Experiment 7: LED Control Using the PIC Microcontroller 775

11.8 Experiment 8: Force and Strain Measurement Using a Strain Gauge and PIC-ADC Interface 780

11.9 Experiment 9: Solenoid Control Using a Transistor and PIC Microcontroller 787

11.10 Experiment 10: Stepper Motor Motion Control Using a PIC Microcontroller 790

11.11 Experiment 11: DC Motor Speed Control Using PWM 794

11.12 Experiment 12: Closed Loop DC Motor Position Control 799

APPENDIX MATLAB®, SIMULINK®, STATEFLOW, AND AUTO-CODE GENERATION 805

A.1 MATLAB® Overview 805

A.1.1 Data in MATLAB® Environment 808

A.1.2 Program Flow Control Statements in MATLAB® 813

A.1.3 Functions in MATLAB®: M-script files and M-function files 815

A.1.4 Input and Output in MATLAB® 822

A.1.5 MATLAB® Toolboxes 831

A.1.6 Controller Design Functions: Transform Domain and State-Space Methods 832

A.2 Simulink® 836

A.2.1 Simulink® Block Examples 843

A.2.2 Simulink®S-Functions in C Language 852

A.3 Stateflow 856

A.3.1 Accessing Data and Functions from a Stateflow Chart 865

A.4 Auto Code Generation 876

REFERENCES 879

INDEX 883

From the Back Cover

Modern mechatronics is the intersection of Mechanical, Electrical/Electronics and Computer Engineering fields. The field of mechatronics studies embedded computer-controlled mechanical systems and virtually all traditionally mechanical systems are now controlled this way. This technological evolution has been in progress during the past 30 years whereby embedded computers have been introduced to the design of all mechanical systems.

Mechatronics with Experiments, Second Edition
 comprehensively covers the fundamental scientific principles and technologies that are used in the design of modern computer-controlled machines and processes. It provides all of the technical background (covering mechanical, aerospace, chemical, electrical, and computer engineering) needed for designing an automated machine or process. This new edition has also been updated to include a number of experiments involving electronic circuit design and microcontroller programming and includes real-time software development using MATLAB®, Simulink® and auto-code generation tools. Additional real world examples have been added to every chapter, with particular attention given to automotive powertrain control, electrohydraulic systems, control algorithm design methods. End of chapter problems are also included.

Key features:

  • Covers embedded microcontroller based design of machines
  • Includes MATLAB®/Simulink®-based embedded control software development
  • Considers electrohydraulic motion control systems, with extensive applications in construction equipment industry
  • Discusses electric motion control, servo systems, and coordinated multi-axis automated motion control for factory automation applications
  • Accompanied by a website hosting a solution manual

Mechatronics with Experiments, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical, chemical, electrical and industrial engineering, and is also a useful reference for researchers and practitioners in industry.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Professor Cetinkunt has been working in mechatronics field, in academic and industrial Environment, for the past twenty five years.  He obtained his PhD in Robotics from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1987.  His research has been funded by National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and may companies including Caterpillar, Motorola and others.

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