Internal Combustion Engines
Internal Combustion Engines by R.K Rajput-An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.
The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see Otto engine).
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-strokeand two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine.
In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft, and boats.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI (compression ignition) engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI (spark ignition) engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy.
Contents-Internal Combustion Engines by R.K Rajput
ENGINE COOLING 482510
SUPERCHARGING OF LC ENGINES 511536
TESTING AND PERFORMANCE OF LC ENGINES 537611
AIR POLLUTION FROM I C ENGINES AND ITS CONTROL 612637
MISCELLANEOUS ENGINES 638663
COMBUSTION IN C I ENGINES 226247
TWO STROKE ENGINES 267281
CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND FUELS
FUELAIR MIXTURE REQUIREMENTS 357366
CARBURETION AND CARBURETTORS 367414
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS FOR CI ENGINES 415440
AIR COMPRESSORS 664803
GAS TURBINES AND JET PROPULSION 804881
QUESTIONS BANKWith Answers 198
PARTH THEORETICAL QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 50
PARTHI ADDITIONAL TYPICAL WORKED EXAMPLES 77
Author: R.K RajputDOWNLOAD PDF