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Functional Circuits and Oscillators

Functional Circuits and Oscillators – For many years the field of electronics was concerned mainly with the use
of electronic devices in the generation, amplification, and control of sinu-
soidal and modulated waves. More recently, the rapidly growing fields of
instrumentation, control, and computing have placed great emphasis upon
electronic circuits that generate or employ pulses and nonsinusoidal waves.
The principal portion of this book deals with the analysis, characteristics,
and applications of circuits of this type. The last 22 sections treat sine-
wave oscillators, the basic principles of many of which are closely related
to those of circuits discussed in earlier sections.

A knowledge of the basic principles and characteristics of the circuits
treated throughout this book should enable the reader to synthesize circuits
to meet specific requirements. Of even greater potential value as a discipline
is the mathematical and phenomenological analysis of the circuits. For this
reason, greater emphasis has been placed upon the analysis and charac-
teristics of the basic circuits than upon specific circuits that meet individual
requirements. Where convenient, numerical values of circuit elements have
been provided in the examples of tube and transistor circuits.

Problems are numbered according to sections, and reference is made to
the problems at points where their solution should be helpful to an under-
standing of the theory. Many of the problems consist of outlines of details
of analysis that can be profitably performed by the reader, and that would
take up considerable space if included in complete form in the body of the
text. The reader is urged tb work at least a substantial portion of the
problems.

Functional Circuits and Oscillators Edited by

HERBERT J. REICH
Dunham Laboratory, Yale School of Engineering

Sheingold, Abraham — Fundamentals of Radio Communications

King, Donald D. — Measurements at Centimeter Wavelength

Reich, H. J., Ordnung, P. F., Krauss, H. L., Skalnik, J. G. Microwave
Theory and Techniques

Reich, H. J., Skalnik, J. G., Ordnung, P. F., Krauss, H. L. — Microwave
Principles

Murphy, Gordon J. — Basic Automatic Control Theory
Murphy, Gordon J. — Control Engineering

Hutter, Rudolf G. E. — Beam and Wave Electronics in Microwave Tubes
Fitchen, Franklin C. — Transistor Circuit Analysis and Design
Moon, Parry, and Spencer, Domina E. — Foundations of Electrodynamics
Moon, Parry, and Spencer, Domina E. — Field Theory for Engineers
Gartner, Wolfgang W. — Transistors; Principles, Design, and Applications
Reich, H. J. — Functional Circuits and Oscillators
Ku, Y. H. — Transient Circuit Analysis Functional Circuits and Oscillators

A series of text and reference books in electronics and communications.
Additional titles will be listed and announced as published.

FUNCTIONAL CIRCUITS
AND OSCILLATORS

HERBERT J. REICH

Department of Electrical Engineering
Yale University

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, INC.

PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY

TORONTO LONDON

NEW YORK

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, INC.

120 Alexander St., Princeton, New Jersey [Princi’pal office)
24 West 40 Street, New York 18, New York

D. Van Nostrand Company, Ltd.

358, Kensington High Street, London, W.14, England

D. Van Nostrand Company (Canada), Ltd.

25 Hollinger Road, Toronto 16, Canada

Copyright <§) 1961, by
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, Inc.

Published simultaneously in Canada by
D. Van Nostrand Company (Canada), Ltd.

No reproduction in any form of this book, in whole or in
part {except for brief quotation in critical articles or reviews),
may be made without written authorization from the publishers.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OP AMERICA

This Book Is Dedicated

TO All Who Have Participated in Its Preparation

PREFACE – Functional Circuits and Oscillators

A large portion of this book deals with the theory, characteristics, and
applications of negative-resistance circuits and with the theory and char-
acteristics of sine-wave oscillators. The book might have been restricted to
these subjects and entitled, “Oscillators and Negative-Resistance Devices.”
Because many negative-resistance devices find their principal applications as
counters, memory devices, and generators of pulses and nonsinusoidal waves,
it seemed desirable to extend the coverage to other functional circuits, in-
cluding summing circuits, differential amplifiers, differentiators, integrators,
clippers, gates, and nonlinear-circuit simulators.

Much has been written on the subject of ‘negative-resistance circuits and
their applications. No previous attempt appears to have been made, how-
ever, to analyze generalized basic negative-resistance circuits and to derive
principles and criteria that can be conveniently used in the synthesis of
almost all presently-known practical negative-resistance circuits and devices
and the bistable, astable, monostable, and sine-wave-oscillator circuits based
upon them. When these principles and criteria are understood, it is a simple
matter to synthesize negative-resistance circuits using any type of active
element and to determine the ports at which the circuits have voltage-stable
current-voltage characteristics, and those at which they have current-stable
characteristics. The circuit elements that must be added in order to convert
a particular negative-resistance circuit into a bistable, astable, monostable,
or sine-wave-oscillator circuit can then be readily determined.

It is advantageous to consider all feedback oscillators from the point of
view of a basic generalized circuit consisting of a broadband amplifier and a
frequency-selective feedback network. In this manner a criterion for steady-
state oscillation of all feedback oscillators may be derived in terms of the
y and z parameters of two-port networks. The criterion may be readily
applied to the analysis of almost all commonly-used feedback oscillators
incorporating tubes, transistors, or other active elements. This approach
affords an insight into the causes of frequency instability and suggests
ways of increasing stability. It is also helpful in the synthesis of new or
modified circuits. Another important aspect of oscillator theory treated in
this book is the mechanism of amplitude stabilization by the use of circuit
nonlinearities.

The desire to minimize the space devoted to routine mathematical deriva-

vii

Vlll

PREFACE

tions may tempt an author to rely unduly upon the statement, “It may be
readily shown that . . . when, in truth, the proper procedure is obvious
only after the analysis in question has been performed. In order to eliminate
mathematical details without straining the ingenuity of the reader unneces-
sarily, many proofs and derivations throughout the book have been presented
in the form of problems in which a general method of procedure is outlined.

It is hoped that this book may find application both as a text and as a
reference and that it will prove useful in the synthesis of new circuits to serve
specific functions. Although the author has attempted to make the book
up-to-date at the time of publication and to include pertinent recent refer-
ences, anyone working in any branch of the electronics field will be aware
of the difficulty faced by a single author in achieving this goal at the present
time of very rapid growth.

H. J. R.

New Haven, Conn.

April 1, 1961

CONTENTS

PREFACE vii

INTRODUCTION 1

  1. CIRCUITS FOR THE ADDITION OF VOLTAGES 1

Summing Amplifiers, 1; Tubes or Transistors with Common
Load, 3

  1. CIRCUITS FOR THE SUBTRACTION OF VOLTAGES . 4

The Differential Amplifier, 4; Differential-Amplifier Balance, 6;
Current Output of Differential Amplifier, 7; Differential Ampli-
fier with Single-Sided Output, 8; Transistor Differential Am-
plifiers, 10

  1. DIFFERENTIATING AND INTEGRATING CIRCUITS 11

Resistance-Capacitance Differentiating Circuit, 11; Effect of
Source Resistance and Load Capacitance, 13; Use of Inverse-
Feedback Amplifier, 15

  1. INTEGRATING CIRCUITS 18

Resistance-Capacitance Circuits, 18; Miller and Bootstrap Cir-
cuits, 20

  1. STABILIZED D-C AMPLIFIER FOR ADDING, DIFFER-
    ENTIATING, AND INTEGRATING CIRCUITS . , , 21

Need for High Stability, 21; Basic Circuit, 22; Practical Cir-
cuit, 24

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODES 24

Thermionic Diodes, 24; Semiconductor Diodes, 25; Breakdown
Diodes, 27; Capacitor Diodes, 29; Transient Response of Semi-
conductor Diodes, 29

  1. CLIPPERS (AMPLITUDE COMPARATORS) . . . . 32

Diode Circuits, 32; The Use of Clippers in Rectangular-Wave
Generation, 34; Variants of the Basic Diode Circuits, 35; Clip-
ping by Single Triodes or Pentodes, 36 ; Transistor Clippers, 37 ;
The Cathode-Coupled Clipper, 37 ; Input Ratio of the Cathode-
Coupled Clipper, 38 ; Speed of Response of the Cathode-Coupled
Clipper, 39

IX

X

CONTENTS

  1. CLAMPING CIRCUITS .

Operation of Clamping Circuits, 40; Distortion by Clamping
Circuits, 42; Example of Clamper Application, 43

  1. PULSE SHARPENERS AND STRETCHERS

Resonant-Circuit Pulse Sharpener, 44; Diode Pulse Stretcher,
45; Transmission-Line Pulse Stretcher, 45; Monostable Circuits,
47

  1. ELECTRONIC SWITCHES (GATES)

Desirable Features of Electronic Switches, 47 ; Diode Gates, 47 ;
Not Circuits, 49; Full-Wave Diode Circuits, 49; Effect of Load
Capacitance and Conductance, 51

  1. VACUUM TRIODE AND PENTODE GATES

Full-Wave Triode Gate, 51; Cathode-Follower Gate, 52; Pen-
tode Gates, 53

  1. BEAM-TUBE GATES

Gated-Beam Tube, 54; Beam-Deflection Tube, 55; Secondary-
Emission Beam Tube, 56

  1. TRANSISTOR SWITCHES

Complete Collector Characteristic Curves, 58; Common-Emitter
Switch, 60; Common-Collector Switch, 61; Power Dissipation
in Transistor Switches, 62 ; Two-Transistor Circuits, 62 ; Com-
pensation for Unbalance, 63; Modified Circuits, 64; Transient
Effects in Transistor Switches, 64; Use of Transistor Switches as
Choppers, 65

  1. OR CIRCUITS, AND (COINCIDENCE) CIRCUITS, AND

NOT (ANTICOINCIDENCE) CIRCUITS

Or Circuits, 66; And Circuits, 66; Not Circuits, 68

  1. NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE CIRCUITS

Definition of Negative Resistance, 69; Example of a Negative-
Resistance Circuit, 70 ; Another Example of a Negative-Resist-
ance Circuit, 71

  1. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLTAGE-STABLE AND
    CURRENT-STABLE CIRCUITS

Effect of Gain Parameters Upon Current-Voltage Curves, 72;
Criteria for Voltage-Stable and Current-Stable Ports, 73

  1. THE BASIC NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE CIRCUITS

Pi and Tee Circuits, 75 ; Effect of Reactive Elements, 77

CONTENTS

XI

  1. VACUUM-TUBE NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE CIRCUITS 7*9

Pentode Circuits, 79; Common-Cathode, Common-Cathode
Two-Tube Circuit, 81; Common-Grid, Common-Plate Two-
Tube Circuit, 84

  1. TRANSISTOR NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE CIRCUITS 85

Criteria for Negative Resistance in Transistor Circuits, 85;
Avalanche, Point-Contact, and P-N-P-N Transistors, 86 ;
P-V-P-V-Transistor Base Characteristics, 87; P-iV-P-V-
Transistor Emitter and Collector Characteristics, 89; Two-
Transistor and Three-Transistor Circuits, 90

  1. THE UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR 91

Structure of the Unijunction Transistor, 91

21 . DIODE NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE CIRCUITS …. 93

The Use of Transistors as Negative-Resistance Diodes, 93 ;
Current- Voltage Characteristics of-P-V-P-V Diodes, 94 ; Ef-
fect of Temperature and Illumination Upon P-V-P-V-Diode
Characteristics, 95 ; The Esaki Diode, 96

  1. GLOW AND ARC TUBES 97

Glow-Diode Current- Voltage Characteristics, 97 ; Arc-Diode
Current- Voltage Characteristics, 98; Current-Voltage Charac-
teristics of Grid-Controlled Arc Tubes, 99

  1. MULTISTABLE CIRCUITS 99

Definition of Multistable Circuit, 99; Graphical Explanation of
Bistability, 100

  1. STABILITY OF EQUILIBRIUM POINTS 101

Voltage-Stable Characteristic, 101 ; Current-Stable Character-
istic, 103 ; Criteria for Bistability, 104

  1. TRANSITION BETAVEEN STATES OF EQUILIBRIUM . 105

Change of Supply Voltage and Resistance, 105; Speed of Transi-
tion, 106; Triggering by Rectangular Pulse, 107; Triggering by
Exponential Pulse, 109

  1. TUBE AND TRANSISTOR BISTABLE CIRCUITS . Ill

Synthesis of Bistable Circuits, 111 ; Criteria for Bistability, 111 ;
Switching Diodes and Triodes; Thyratron, 113; Fully Con-
trollable Switching Devices, 114

  1. THE ECCLES-JORDAN CIRCUIT 116

Basic Circuit, 116; Transistor Eccles-Jordan Circuit, 117; Need
for Coupling Capacitors, 118; Use of Breakdown Diodes for

CONTENTS

Page

Coupling, 119; Variants of the Eccles-Jordan Circuit, 119;
Cathode-Coupled Eccles-Jordan Circuit, 121

  1. TRIGGERING OF THE ECCLES-JORDAN CIRCUITS 121

Methods of Triggering, 121 ; Comparison of Negative and Posi-
tive Triggering, 122

  1. COMMUTATION OF THE ECCLES-JORDAN CIRCUIT 122

Commutation by Coupling Capacitors, 122; Use of Diodes to
Aid Commutation, 124; Use of Breakdown Diodes to Aid Com-
mutation, 126; Commutation of Suppressor-Coupled Circuit, 127

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE ECCLES-JORDAN CIRCUIT AS AN

AMPLIFIER 127

Use of Voltage Transfer Characteristics, 127; Triggering by
Voltage Increment, 129; Speed of Transition, 130

  1. SPEED OF TRANSITION OF TUBE ECCLES-JORDAN

CIRCUITS 131

Equivalent Circuit During Transition, 131 ; Analysis for Rec-
tangular Triggering Pulse, 132; Analysis for Exponential Trig-
gering Pulse, 133; Settling Speed, 134

  1. SPEED OF TRANSITION OF TRANSISTOR ECCLES-

JORDAN CIRCUITS 136

Analysis of Equivalent Circuit, 136; Use of Breakdown Diodes
to Reduce Carrier-Storage Effects, 139

  1. STATIC STABILITY OF VACUUM-TUBE AND TRAN-
    SISTOR-TUBE ECCLES-JORDAN CIRCUITS . .140

Method of Analysis of Tube Circuits, 140; Stability Criteria
for Tube Circuits, 140; Use of the Stability Criteria for Tube
Circuits, 141; Static Stability of the Transistor Eccles-Jordan
Circuit, 142; Requirements for Static Stability of Transistor
Circuits, 144 ; Stability of Diode-Coupled Transistor Circuit, 145

  1. MULTISTABLE CIRCUITS 145

Tristable Eccles-Jordan Circuit, 145; Triggering of Tristable
Circuit, 146; Current-Voltage Characteristic of Tristable Cir-
cuit, 147; Use of Nonlinear Load Resistance, 148; Use of Break-
down Diodes to Provide Nonlinear Load, 149; Multiple-Tube
Eccles-Jordan Circuit, 151

  1. THE USE OF MULTISTABLE CIRCUITS TO CONTROL

GATED AMPLIFIERS 153

CONTENTS

xiii

  1. BINARY AND TERNARY COUNTING CIRCUITS . . 155

Eccles- Jordan Binary Counter, 155; Addition and Subtraction
of Counts, 157

  1. DECADE COUNTERS 158

Conversion of Binary Circuit to Decade Circuit, 158 ; Alternate
Forms of Vacuum-Tube Circuit, 159; Transistor Decade Circuit,

160; Decade Circuit Incorporating Electronic Switch, 162; Cir-
cuits for Other Number Systems, 162

  1. COUNT INDICATORS FOR COUNTING CIRCUITS . 163

Indicators for Binary Counters, 163; Indicators for Decade
Counters, 164

  1. DECADE RING COUNTING CIRCUITS 166

Basic Ring Circuit, 166; Control of Direction of Commutation,

166; Another Type of Ring Circuit, 168

  1. GLOW-DIODE COUNTING CIRCUITS 170

Glow-Tube Binary Stage, 170; Glow-Tube Decade Counter, 171;
Semiconductor-Diode Circuits, 173

  1. COUNTER CIRCUITS USING STARTING-ANODE GLOW
    TUBES, THYRATRONS, AND SWITCHING TRANSISTORS 173

Circuits Using Starting-Anode Glow Tubes, 173; Ring Circuit
Using Starting-Anode Tubes, 175; Thyratron and Switching-
Transistor Circuits, 176

  1. MULTIPLE-ELECTRODE GLOW COUNTING TUBES . . 176

Tubes with Two Sets of Transfer Electrodes, 176; Generation
of Triggering Pulses for Glow-Tube Circuits, 179; The Use of
Directional Cathodes to Insure Commutation, 180; Performance
of Directional-Cathode Tubes, 182

  1. MULTISTABLE MAGNETRONS 183

Negative-Resistance Magnetrons, 183; Magnetron Decade
Switching Tube, 185; Modifications of Magnetron Switching
Tube, 189; Mechanism of Switching, 189; Triggering Grids, 191

  1. MULTISTABLE ELECTROSTATIC-DEFLECTION TUBE . 192

Current- Voltage Characteristic, 192; Mechanism of Commuta-
tion, 194; Practical Tube, 196

  1. ANALYSIS OF NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE CIRCUITS

CONTAINING BOTH L AND C 197

Generalized Equivalent Circuits, 197; Analysis of Equivalent
Circuit Having Voltage-Stable Element, 198; Analysis of

XIV

CONTENTS

Page

Equivalent Circuit Having Current-Stable Element, 201 ; Oscil-
latory, Multistable, Astable, and Monostable Operation, 203

  1. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ASTABLE AND MONO-
    STABLE CIRCUITS 204

Path of Operation, 204; Choice of Supply Voltage and Resist-
ance for Astable Operation, 205

  1. TYPICAL PATHS OF OPERATION FOR ASTABLE CIR-
    CUITS BASED UPON CURRENT-STABLE ELEMENTS . 206

Analysis of Path of Operation, 206; Effect of Change of C/L
Ratio, 208; Useful Properties of Astable Circuits, 210

  1. PATHS OF OPERATION FOR ASTABLE CIRCUITS

BASED UPON VOLTAGE-STABLE ELEMENTS .210

Duality of Current-Stable and Voltage-Stable Circuits, 210;

Effect of Change of L/C Ratio, 212

  1. SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING

ASTABLE CIRCUITS 212

Synthesis of Astable Circuits, 212; Conversion of Bistable Cir-
cuits into Astable Circuits, 213; Choice of Supply Voltage and
Resistance for Astable Operation, 213; Advantages of Current-
Stable Circuits, 214

  1. PRACTICAL ASTABLE CIRCUITS 214

Pentode Relaxation Oscillator, 214; Phenomenological Explana-
tion of the Operation of the Pentode Circuit, 215; Cathode-
Coupled Relaxation Oscillator, 216; P-V-P-iV-Transistor Re-
laxation Oscillator, 217; Unijunction-Transistor Relaxation
Oscillator, 218

  1. THE MULTIVIBRATOR 220

Basic Circuit, 220; Analysis of Multivibrator Operation, 222;
Waveforms of Multivibrator Voltages and Currents, 223;
Screen-Coupled Pentode Multivibrator, 225; Cathode-Loaded
Multivibrator, 226

  1. STABILIZATION OF AIULTIVIBRATOR FREQUENCY . 227

Importance of Frequency Stability, 227; Period of Oscillation,

227; Frequency Instability of Vacuum-Tube Multivibrators,

229; Frequency Stability for Negative Grid Supply Voltage,

230; Frequency Stability of Transistor Multivibrator, 231;
Stabilization of Frequency Against Noise, 231; Stabilization
Against Variation of Load, 231

CONTENTS

XV

  1. TUNING OF THE MULTIVIBRATOR 232

Frequency of Oscillation, 232; Limits of Frequency of Oscilla-
tion, 233; Voltage Tuning of the Multivibrator, 234; Lineariza-
tion of Tuning, 234; Transistor Circuit, 236

  1. SYNCHRONIZATION OF RELAXATION OSCILLATORS . 236

Use of Relaxation Oscillators in Frequency Transformation,

236; Mechanism of Synchronization, 238; Synchronization by
Periodic Pulses, 239; Control by Resonant Circuits, 240

  1. MONOSTABLE CIRCUITS 240

Theory of Operation, 240; Conversion of Astable Circuits into
Monostable Circuits, 242; Analysis of One-Shot Multivibrator,

242; Causes of Nonrectangular Pulse Form, 245; Transistor
One-Shot Multivibrators, 247; Nonsaturating Transistor Cir-
cuit, 248; High-Current Transistor Circuit, 249; Monostable
Unijunction-Transistor Circuit, 250;. Use of Monostable Circuits
as Delay Circuits, 251

  1. PRECISION PULSE GENERATORS 251

Use of Miller Integrator for Timing, 251 ; The Phantastron, 252;
Modified Phantastron, 254

  1. SAWTOOTH-VOLTAGE GENERATORS 255

Types of Sawtooth-Voltage Generators, 255; Analysis of Astable
Sawtooth- Voltage Generators, 255; Frequency of Oscillation
of Astable Circuit, 257; Effect of Changes of Resistance and
Capacitance, 259; Choice of Supply Voltage and Resistance,

260; Monostable Operation, 260; Synchronization, 260

  1. PRACTICAL FORMS OF ASTABLE SAWTOOTH-

VOLTAGE GENERATORS 261

Glow-Tube Circuit, 261; Thyratron Circuit, 261; P-N-P-N-
Transistor Circuit, 263; Eccles-Jordan Circuit, 263

  1. SWITCH-TYPE SAWTOOTH-VOLTAGE GENERATORS . 264

Basic Circuit, 264; Bootstrap Circuit, 265; Miller Circuit, 267;
Suppressor-Controlled Miller Circuit, 269; Triangular-Wave
Circuit, 270; Pentode-Triode Circuit, 271

  1. SAWTOOTH-CURRENT GENERATORS 272
  2. BLOCKING-OSCILLATOR PULSE GENERATOR . .274

Principle of Operation, 274; Use of Resistor and Capacitor to
Control Pulse Length, 275; Modes of Operation, 275; Blocking-
Oscillator Transformers, 276

XVI

CONTENTS

Page

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE VACUUM-TUBE BLOCKING

OSCILLATOR 277

Analysis During Switching Periods, 277 ; Analysis During
Settling Periods, 279

  1. TRANSISTOR BLOCKING OSCILLATORS 280

Transistor Blocking-Oscillator Circuits, 280; Simplified Anal-
ysis, 281 ; Transition Time, 283

  1. LINEAR ANALYSIS OF TRANSITION OF TRANSISTOR

BLOCKING OSCILLATORS 284

Transition to the High-Current State, 284 ; Solution of Approxi-
mate Characteristic Equations, 287 ; Graphical Solution of Char-
acteristic Equations, 289; Effect of Loading, 289; Method of
Triggering, 289

  1. LINEAR ANALYSIS OF TRANSISTOR BLOCKING

OSCILLATORS DURING CONDUCTION 290

Analysis of Equivalent Circuit, 290; Use of R-C Timing Circuit,

292 ; Transition to Low-Current State, 293

  1. NONSATURATING TRANSISTOR BLOCKING

OSCILLATORS 293

Use of Diodes to Reduce Saturation, 293; Behavior Following
Transition to the High-Current State, 295; Conduction Period,

296

  1. NONLINEAR-CIRCUIT SIMULATORS 297

Advantages of Diode Circuits, 297 ; Characteristics of Multiple-
Branch Circuits, 298; Basic Diode Circuits, 298; Parallel and
Series Circuits, 300; Synthesis of Circuits Having Desired Char-
acteristics, 302 ; The Photoformer, 304

  1. PULSE AMPLIFIERS 306

Requirements of Pulse Amplifiers; Step Response, 306; Com-
pensation of Shunt Capacitance by Inductance, 307; Use of
Cathode-Follower Coupling Stages Between Pentodes, 310; Re-
sponse of Stages in Tandem, 310; Determination of Step-Voltage
Response, 310; Transistor Pulse Amplifiers, 311

  1. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIERS 311

Principle of Operation, 311; Number of Tubes Required, 313;
Attainable Bandwidth, 313

  1. GAIN CONTROLS FOR PULSE AMPLIFIERS . . . . 313

CONTENTS

xvii

  1. ONE-PORT AND TWO-PORT SINE-WAVE OSCILLATORS 314
  2. SINE-WAVE OSCILLATOR CHARACTERISTICS . .315

Desirable Features of Sine-Wave Oscillators, 315; Power Out-
put of Oscillators, 315; Harmonic Content, 316; Frequency
Stability, 316; Amplitude Stability, 317; Constancy and Accu-
racy of Calibration, 317

  1. NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE (ONE-PORT) OSCILLATORS . 317

Analysis of One-Port Oscillators, 317; Determination of Nega-
tive Resistance, 320; Type of Resonator Required, 321; Dy-
namic-Negative-Resistance Circuits, 321; Shunt and Series
Equivalent Circuits, 322

  1. AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY STABILIZATION OF

PARALLEL-RESONATOR NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE
OSCILLATORS

Amplitude Diagrams, 323; Amplitude Hysteresis, 325; Mini-
mization of Harmonic Content, 326; Amplitude Stabilization,
326; Frequency Stabilization, 328; Stabilization of Series-
Resonator Negative-Resistance Oscillators, 329

  1. ADMITTANCE DIAGRAMS FOR NEGATIVE-RESIST-
    ANCE OSCILLATORS

Theory of Admittance Diagrams, 329; Analysis of an Admit-
tance Diagram, 331; Oscillation at More than One Frequency,
332 ; Use of Admittance Diagrams, 333

  1. PRACTICAL NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE OSCILLATORS

Choice of Circuits, 335; Pentode Negative-Resistance Oscil-
lators, 336; Balanced Negative-Resistance Oscillators, 337;
Cathode-Coupled and Emitter-Coupled Oscillators, 339; Nega-
tive-Resistance-Diode Oscillators, 339; Stabilization of Tran-
sistor Oscillators Against Changes of Temperature, 340

  1. ELECTRONIC TUNING AND MODULATION OF

NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE OSCILLATORS

Tuning by Direct Variation of Susceptance, 340; Tuning by
Variable-Admittance Tube and Transistor Circuits, 341

  1. FEEDBACK (TWO-PORT) OSCILLATORS

Choice of Amplifier, 342; Analysis of Generalized Feedback
Oscillator, 342 ; Analysis of Circuits in Which Amplifier Input
and Reverse Transfei; Admittance Are Small, 344; Analysis by
Differential Equations, 346

323

329

335

340

342

CONTENTS

  1. ADMITTANCE DIAGRAMS FOR FEEDBACK

OSCILLATORS , . a..

Justification for Admittance Diagrams, 346 ; Example of an Ad-
mittance Diagram for a Feedback Oscillator, 347; Klystron
Admittance Diagram, 348

  1. PARALLEL-RESONATOR FEEDBACK OSCILLATORS

Tuned-Output, Tuned-Input, Hartley, and Colpitts Circuits,
348; Choice Between Types, 350; Doubly Tuned and Push-Pull
Feedback Oscillators, 351; Methods of Obtaining Bias, 351

Page

346

348

  1. ANALYSIS OF PARALLEL-RESONATOR FEEDBACK

OSCILLATORS ^ ^ x

Methods of Analysis, 352; Analysis of Tuned-Plate Oscillator
by Differential Equations, 353; Analysis of Tuned-Plate Oscil-
lator by Two-Port-Network Equations, 354; Effects of Transit
Time, 355

  1. GENERALIZED ANALYSIS OF TUNED-OUTPUT

CIRCUITS .

Derivation of Expressions for Frequency and Criterion lor
Oscillation, 356; Tuned-Collector Oscillator, 359; Effect of Car-
rier Transit Time, 360; Other Tuned-Output Oscillators, 360;
Tuned-Input, Colpitts, and Hartley Analysis, 360

  1. AMPLITUDE LIMITATION IN PARALLEL-RESONATOR
    FEEDBACK OSCILLATORS

Amplitude Diagrams for Vacuum-Tube Feedback Oscillators,
361; Capacitor-Gridleak Bias, 363; Design of Biasing Circuit;
Squegging, 365; Amplitude Limitation by Temperature-Con-
trolled Resistance, 366; Amplitude Stability, 366; Amplitude
Limitation in Transistor Feedback Oscillators, 368

  1. FREQUENCY STABILIZATION OF PARALLEL-
    RESONATOR FEEDBACK OSCILLATORS

Stabilization Against Changes of Load, 370; Dependence of
Frequency upon Supply Voltage, 371 ; Stabilization of Frequency
Against Changes of Voltage, 373; Clapp-Gouriet Oscillator, 373;
Resistance Stabilization, 374; Reactance Stabilization, 375;
Stabilization of Frequency of Transistor Oscillators Against
Change of Temperature, 376; Use of Common-Collector and
Common-Base Coupling Stages, 377; Electronic Tuning and
Modulation of Feedback Oscillators, 377

CONTENTS

XIX

Page

  1. NULL-NETWORK OSCILLATORS 377

Desirable Features of Null-Network Oscillators, 377 ; Paral-
lel-Resonator Bridge Oscillator, 379; Bridged-Tee Feedback
Oscillators, 381; Parallel-Tee, Resistance-Capacitance-Tuned
Oscillator, 382

  1. WIEN-BRIDGE OSCILLATOR 384

Analysis of General Form of Circuit, 384; Vacuum-Tube Wien-
Bridge Oscillator, 384; Transistor Wien-Bridge Oscillator, 387;
Desirable Features of AVien-Bridge Oscillators, 389

  1. DOUBLE-FEEDBACK NULL-NETWORK OSCILLATORS . 391
  2. PHASE-SHIFT (LADDER-NETAVORK) OSCILLATORS . 391

Vacuum-Tube Phase-Shift Oscillators, 391 ; Stability of
Vacuum-Tube Phase-Shift Oscillator, 393; Use of Modified
Ladder Networks, 394; Tuning of Phase-Shift Oscillators, 397;
Transistor Phase-Shift Oscillators, 398; Two-Section Phase-
Shift Oscillator, 399; Other Types of Phase-Shift Oscillators,

400; Frequency-Modulation of Phase-Shift Oscillators, 401

  1. SUM- AND DIFFERENCE-CIRCUIT OSCILLATORS , . 406

“Seven-League” Oscillator, 406; De Lange Circuit, 407; Villard-
Holman Oscillators, 409

  1. CRYSTAL-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS 412

Principle of Operation, 412; Use of Crystals in Negative-Re-
sistance Circuits, 413; Crystal-Controlled Feedback Oscillators,

414; Crystal-Controlled Null-Network Oscillator, 414

  1. MAGNETOSTRICTION OSCILLATORS 415
  2. BEAT-FREQUENCY (HETERODYNE) OSCILLATORS 416
  3. MICROAVAVE OSCILLATORS 418

APPENDIX 420

PROBLEMS 422

ADDENDUM 450

LETTER SYMBOLS 452

AUTHOR INDEX 455

SUBJECT INDEX . 459

Introduction – Functional Circuits and Oscillators

For many years the field of electronics was concerned mainly with the use
of electronic devices in the generation, amplification, and control of sinu-
soidal and modulated waves. More recently, the rapidly growing fields of
instrumentation, control, and computing have placed great emphasis upon
electronic circuits that generate or employ pulses and nonsinusoidal waves.
The principal portion of this book deals with the analysis, characteristics,
and applications of circuits of this type. The last 22 sections treat sine-
wave oscillators, the basic principles of many of which are closely related
to those of circuits discussed in earlier sections.

A knowledge of the basic principles and characteristics of the circuits
treated throughout this book should enable the reader to synthesize circuits
to meet specific requirements. Of even greater potential value as a discipline
is the mathematical and phenomenological analysis of the circuits. For this
reason, greater emphasis has been placed upon the analysis and charac-
teristics of the basic circuits than upon specific circuits that meet individual
requirements. Where convenient, numerical values of circuit elements have
been provided in the examples of tube and transistor circuits.

Problems are numbered according to sections, and reference is made to
the problems at points where their solution should be helpful to an under-
standing of the theory. Many of the problems consist of outlines of details
of analysis that can be profitably performed by the reader, and that would
take up considerable space if included in complete form in the body of the
text. The reader is urged tb work at least a substantial portion of the
problems.

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