Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology is a comprehensive and handy guide for sonographers, obstetricians, gynecology and radiology professionals, and all technicians working in ultrasound laboratories who are interested in taking advantage of all the resources provided by this imaging technique.
The book is divided in three sections which give information on a variety of relevant topics: Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Instrumentation and Technology . This section explains different ultrasound methods that can be used for three-dimensional imaging. It is complemented by a discussion on how to use the techniques in telemedicine.
The Use of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound During Pregnancy . This section explains the methods used to assess fetal organs, behavior and defects during different stages of pregnancy. The Use of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound When Evaluating Female Reproductive Physiology . This section covers diagnostic procedures for ovarian and uterine abnormalities and neoplasms. Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
Table of Contents
FOREWORD – Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
Espite the fact that the beginning of 3-dimensional ultrasound was anything but easy, the past 26 years have shown that 3-dimensional/4-dimensional ultrasonography (3D/4D US) has experienced a tremendous development. In particular 3D/4D US has found widespread acceptance around the world since we organized the First World Congress for 3D Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology held in Mainz, Germany, in 1997. In the meantime 3D/4D ultrasound has evolved into a powerful technique that can be integrated in every routine ultrasound examination.Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
In contrast to conventional 2-dimensional (2D) US that only allows imaging of single planes, 3D/4D US offers several render modes, image displays and storage capabilities that do not exist in 2D imaging. The most recent 3D/4D ultrasound technology facilitates 3D/4D ultrasound examinations even for the less experienced operator. There is no doubt that 3D/4D scanning requires a learning curve. However, once the principles and benefits of 3D/4D ultrasound are apprehended, the examiner has the opportunity to identify precisely normal and abnormal fetal or gynecological structures in the most appropriate imaging mode. Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
It seemed evident therefore that given the many advances that had occurred in the last few years there was a need for a new 3D/4D textbook. This textbook is written by 48 experts in the field and is divided in three parts: technology, obstetrics and gynecology. The different chapters are illustrated with high quality state-of-the-art images and are referenced with the latest papers. The editors succeeded to provide an excellent text book that gives a very good overview on the potential benefits of 3D/4D ultrasound in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. This book should be an important source for all private offices and ultrasound laboratories. Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
Preface – Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
Ultrasound is a formidable diagnostic tool in obstetrics and gynaecology and is being increasingly used around the world. Several new technologies were incorporated in the last decades, including three and four-dimensional ultrasonography. Although 3D/4D technology is able to improve the diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasonography in several conditions, it is still not so popular, because machines with such technology are more expensive and because there is need of additional training before being able to manipulate the 3D dataset and to get used with the particular functions and terminology. Therefore, some professionals, particularly those who are not aware of all the potential benefits of 3D/4D ultrasound, still do not think it is time to move to this new technology.
Therefore, we decided to gather the opinion of several experts around the world, in order to summarize the evidence of the advantages of 3D/4D ultrasound and how to use this technology. We hope this guide, that does not intend to be comprehensive, will help professionals around the world to take the best of this imaging technique.
The editors want to thank all the chapters’ authors for their valuable time and effort spent to write beautiful texts; fortunately, we were supported by fantastic contributors!
SHORT SUMMARY – Advanced Topics on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
This book does not intend to be comprehensive; instead it tries to summarize the available evidence regarding the potential benefits of three- and four-dimensional (3D/4D) ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology as well as some details regarding the particular functions and terminology. Our book is divided in three sections. The first section was designated to the instrumentation and technology, with chapters focused on image acquisition, data-set manipulation, display modes, volume measurement, telemedicine, and 3D/4D Doppler. The second section is focuses on the application of 3D/4D ultrasound in obstetrics: evaluation of the fetal heart, central nervous system, face and malformations; assessment of lung volume, fetal nutrition status and behavior; the use of 3D ultrasound during labor; and the clinical relevance of assessing 3D power Doppler during pregnancy. The last section is related to the use of 3D ultrasound in gynecology: diagnosis of uterine anomalies, myometrial and ovarian tumors, endometrial cancer and polyps; assessment of the position of intrauterine and intratubal devices, endometrial receptivity, ovarian morphology and follicle count. We expect you’ll enjoy the reading.
SECTION I: THREE- AND FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND:
INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNOLOGY
- Principles of 3D/4D Ultrasound: 3D Data Acquisition, Multiplanar Image, 3D Image and Electrical Scalpel (MagiCut)
- Specific Three-Dimensional Display Modes: 3D Cine, 4D, TUI, VCI, Omniview, SonoVCAD, and STIC
- Volume Measurements by Three-dimensional Ultrasound
- Telemedicine 3D- and 4D-ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
SECTION II: THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND IN OBSTETRICS
- Assessment of Fetal Heart by Three- and Four-Dimensional Ultrasound
- Fetal Brain Anatomy by Three-dimensional Ultrasound Neuroscan
- Three-dimensional Assessment of Fetal Face
- Fetal Limb Volume: Its Role in the Prediction of Birth Weight and Evaluation of Fetal Nutritional Status
- Fetal Lung Volumes in Congenital Anomalies Using Three-dimensional Ultrasonography
- Assessment of First Trimester of Pregnancy by Three-dimensional Ultrasound
- The Assessment of Fetal Neurobehavior with Four-dimensional Ultrasound
- Applicability of Three-dimensional Power Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics
- Fetal Malformations Detected by Three-dimensional Ultrasound
- Three-dimensional Ultrasound in the Second Stage of Labour
- Three-dimensional Virtual Sonographic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Obstetrics
SECTION III: THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND IN GYNECOLOGY
- Uterine Anomalies by Three-dimensional Ultrasound
- Three-dimensional Ultrasound for Assessing the Position of Intrauterine and Intratubal Devices
- Three-dimensional Pelvic Sonography of Uterine Masses
- Three-dimensional Ultrasound in Endometrial Cancer and Polyps
- Assessment of Endometrial Receptivity by Two- and Three-dimensional Ultrasound
- Ovarian Follicle Evaluation: Antral Follicle Count and Follicle Monitoring During Controlled Ovarian Stimulation
- Assessment of Ovarian Volume, Ovarian Follicle Count and Ovarian Blood Flow in Hyperandrogenic Anovulation
- Adnexal Tumors by Three-dimensional Ultrasound
- Three-dimensional Ultrasound for the Assessment of the Pelvic Floor.