Textbook Of Electrical Technology – A Textbook Of Electrical Technology (Multi Colour) is a comprehensive book for electrical engineering students. The book comprises chapters, which cover the entire syllabus of electrical engineering in brief. In addition, the book has multicolor illustrations, which help the students in understanding the concepts better. This book is essential for electrical engineering students and educators alike.

This book has been thoroughly revised and enlarged and will be an asset to both Electrical as well as non-Electrical Students pursuing their studies in different branches of Engineering.

Table of Contents

## Table of Contents – Textbook Of Electrical Technology

- Vol. I: Electric Current And Ohm’S Law
- D.C. Network Theorems
- Work, Power And Energy
- Electrostatics Lcapacitance
- Magnetism And Electromagnetism
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Magnetic Hysteresis
- Electronical Power Sources
- Electrical Instruments And Measurements
- A.C. Fundamentals
- Complex Numbers
- Series A.C. Circuits
- Parallel A.C. Circuits
- A.C. Network Analysis
- A.C. Bridges
- A.C. Filter Networks
- Circle Diagrams
- Polyphase Circuits
- Harmonics
- Fourier Series
- Transients
- Symmetrical Components
- Introduction To Electrical Energy Generation

## Detailed Content – Textbook Of Electrical Technology

- Electric Current and Ohm’s Law …1—50

Electron Drift Velocity — Charge Velocity and Velocity of

Field Propagation— The Idea of Electric Potential-

Resistance — Unit of Resistance — Law of Resistance — Units

of Resistivity— Conductance and Conductivity— Effect of

Temperature on Resistance — Temperature Coefficient of

Resistance— Value of a at Different Temperatures—

Variation of Resistivity with Temperature — Ohm’s Law —

Resistance in Series — Voltage Divider Rule — Resistance

in Parallel — Types of Resistors — Nonlinear Resistors —

Varistor— Short and Open Circuits— ‘Shorts’ in a Series

Circuit — ‘Opens’ in Series Circuit — ‘Open’s in a Parallel

Circuit — ‘Shorts’ in Parallel Circuits — Division of Current

in Parallel Circuits— Equivalent Resistance— Duality

Between Series and Parallel Circuits— Relative Potential-

Voltage Divider Circuits— Objective Tests.

2 . DC Network Theorems

Electric Circuits and Network Theorems — Kirchhoff’s

Laws — Determination ofVoltage Sign — Assumed Direction

of Current— Solving Simultaneous Equations—

Determinants — Solving Equations with Two Unknowns —

Solving Equations With Three Unknowns — Independent

and Dependent Sources — Maxwell’s Loop Current

Method — Mesh Analysis Using Matrix Form — Nodal

Analysis with Voltage Sources — Nodal Analysis with

Current Sources— Source Conversion— Ideal Constant-

Voltage Source— Ideal Constant-Current Source-

Superposition Theorem — Thevenin Theorem — Howto

Thevenize a Given Circuit ? — General Instructions for

Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit — Reciprocity

Theorem — Delta/Star T ran sform at ion— Star/Delta

Transformation — Compensation Theorem — Norton’s

Theorem — How to NortanizeaGiven Circuit ? — General

Instructions for Finding Norton Equivalent Circuit —

Millman’s Theorem — Generalised Form of Millman’s

Theorem — Maximum Power Transfer Theorem — Power

Transfer Efficiency — Objective Tests.

3 . Work, Power and Energy

Effect of Electric Current— Joule’s Law of Electric Heat-

ing — Thermal Efficiency — S-l. Units — Calculation of

Kilo-watt Power of a Hydroelectric Station — Objective

Tests.

…51-174

533

CONTENTS

(Vfi)

…189-212

- Electrostatics

Static Electricity — Absolute and Relative Permittivity of a

Medium — Laws of Electrostatics — Electric Field —

Electrostatic Induction— Electric Flux and Faraday Tubes—

— Field Strength or Field Intensity or Electric Intensity (E) —

Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement D — Gauss

Law — The Equations of Poisson and Laplace — Electric

Potential and Energy — Potential and Potential Difference —

Potential at a Point— Potential of a Charged Sphere—

Equipotential Surfaces— Potential and Electric Intensity

Inside a Conducting Sphere— Potential Gradient-

Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength— Safety Factor

of Dielectric— Boundary Conditions— Objective Tests.

- Capacitance

Capacitor— Capacitance— Capacitance of an Isolated

Sphere— Spherical Capacitor— Parallel-plate Capacitor-

Special Cases of Parallel-plate Capacitor— Multiple and

Variable Capacitors— Cylindrical Capacitor— Potential

Gradient in Cylindrical Capacitor— Capacitance Between

two Parallel Wires — Capacitors in Series — Capacitors in

Parallel— Cylindrical Capacitor with Compound

Dielectric— Insulation Resistance of a Cable Capacitor-

Energy Stored in a Capacitor— Force of Attraction Between

Oppositely-charged Plates— Current-Voltage Relationships

in a Capacitor— Charging of a Capacitor— Time Constant-

Discharging of a Capacitor— Transient Relations during

Capacitor Charging Cycle— Transient Relations during

Capacitor Discharging Cycle— Charging and Discharging

of a Capacitor with Initial Charge— Objective Tests.

6 . Magnetism and Electromagnetism

Absolute and Relative Permeabilities ofa Medium — Laws

of Magnetic Force— Magnetic Field Strength (H) — Magnetic

Potential — Flux per Unit Pole — Flux Density (£>)

Absolute Parmeability (m)and Relative Permeability (m ) —

Intensity of Magnetisation (I)— Susceptibility (K) — Relation

Between B, H, I and K— Boundary Conditions — Weber

and Ewing’s Molecular Theory — Curie Point. Force on a

Current-carrying Conductor Lying in a Magnetic Field —

Ampere’s Work Law or Ampere’s Circuital Law— Biot-

Savart Law— Application of Biot— Savart Law— Force

Between two Parallel Conductors — Magnitude of Mutual

Force — Definition of Ampere — Magnetic Circuit —

Definitions — Composite Series Magnetic Circuit — How

to Find Ampere-turns ? — Comparison Between Magnetic

and Electric Circuits— Parallel Magnetic Circuits— Series-

(v/n)

…213-256

…257-296

Parallel MagneticCircuits — Leakage Flux and Hopkinson’s

Leakage Coefficient— Magnetisation Curves—

Magnetisation curves by Ballistic Galvanometer —

Magnetisation Curves by Fluxmete— Objective Tests.

Electromagnetic Induction

Relation Between Magnetism and Electricity — Production

of Induced E.M.F. and Current— Faraday’s Laws of

Electromagnetic Induction — Direction of Induced E.M.F.

and Current — Lenz’s Law— Induced E.M.F. — Dynamically-

induced E.M.F. — Statically-induced E.M.F. — Self-

Inductance— Coefficient of Self-Inductance (L)— Mutual

Inductance— Coefficient of Mutual Inductance (M)—

Coefficient of Coupling — Inductances in Series —

Inductances in Parallel — Objective Tests.

- Magnetic Hysteresis

Magnetic Hysteresis— Area of Hysteresis Loop— Properties

and Application of Ferromagnetic Materials — Permanent

Magnet Materials — Steinmetz Hysteresis Law — Energy

Stored in Magnetic Field— Rate of Change of Stored

Energy— Energy Stored per Unit Volume — Lifting Power

of Magnet — Rise ofCurrent in Inductive Circuit — Decay of

Current in Inductive Circuit — Details of Transient Current

Rise in R-LCircuit — DetailsofTransientCurrent Decay in

R-L Circuit— Automobile Ignition System— Objective Tests.

9 . Electrochemical Power Sources

…297-316

…317-338

… 339-374

Faraday’s Laws of electrolysis— Polarisation or Back

e.m.f. — Value of Back e.m.f. — Primary and Secondary

Batteries— Classification of Secondary Batteries base

on their Use— Classification of Lead Storage Batteries—

Parts of a Lead-acid Battery— Active Materials of Lead-

acid Cells — Chemical Changes — Formation of Plates

of Lead-acid Cells— Plante Process— Structure of Plante

Plates— Faure Process— Positive Pasted Plates— Negative

Pasted Plates— Structure of Faure Plates— Comparison

: Plante and Faure Plates— Internal Resistance and

Capacity of a Cell — Two Efficiencies of the Cell —

Electrical Characteristics ofthe Lead-acid Cell— Battery

Ratings— Indications of a Fully-Charged Cell— Application

of Lead-acid Batteries— Voltage Regulators— End-cell

Control System — Number of End-cells — Charging

Systems— Constant-current System-Constant-voltage

System— Trickle Charging— Sulphation-Causes and Cure-

Maintenance of Lead-acid Cells— Mains operated Battery

Chargers— Car Battery Charger— Automobile Battery

OX)

Charger— Static Uninterruptable PowerSystems— Alkaline

Batteries — Nickel-iron or Edison Batteries — Chemical

Changes— Electrical Characteristics— Nickel-Cadmium

Batteries— Chemical Changes— Comparison : Lead-acid

and Edison Cells — Silver-zinc Batteries — High Temperature

Batteries— Secondary Hybrid Cells— Fuel Cells—

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cells — Batteries for Aircraft —

Batteries for Submarines— Objective Tests.

10 . Electrical Instruments and Measurements …375—452

Classification of AC Motors — Induction Motor: General

Principal— Construction— Squirrel-cage Rotor— Phase-

wound Rotor — Production of Rotating Field — Three-phase

Supply— Mathematical Proof— Why does the Rotor Rotate

? — Slip — Frequency of Rotor Current — Relation between

Torque and Rotor Power Factor— Starting Torque— Starting

Torque of a Squirrel-cage Motor— Starting Torque of a

Slip-ring Motor — Condition for Maximum Starting

Torque— Effect of Change in Supply Voltage on Starting

Torque — Rotor E.M.F and Reactance under Running

Conditions — Torque under Running Condition — Condition

for Maximum Torque Under Running Conditions — Rotor

Torque and Breakdown Torque — Relation between Torque

and Slip— Effect of Change in Supply Voltage on Torque

and Speed— Effect of Change in Supply FrequencyTorque

and Speed— Full-load Torque and Maximum Torque-

Starting Torque and Maximum Torque— Torque/Speed

Curve— Shape of Torque/Speed Curve— Current/Speed

Curve of an Induction Motor— Torque/Speed Characteristic

Under Load — Plugging of an Induction Motor— Induction

Motor Operatingasa Generator— Complete Torque/Speed

Curve of a Th ree-phase Mach i ne — Measurement of S I i p —

Power Stages in an Induction Motor— Torque Developed

by an Induction Motor — Torque, Mechanical Power and

Rotor Output— Induction Motor Torque Equation-

Synchronous Watt — Variation in RotorCurrent — Analogy

with a Mechnical Clutch — Analogy with a D.C. Motor —

Sector Induction Motor— Linear Induction Motor —

Properties of a Linear Induction Motor — Magnetic

Levitation — Induction Motor as a Generalized

Transformer — Rotor Output — Equivalent Circuit of the

Rotor— Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor — Power

Balance Equation — Maximum Power Output —

Corresponding Slip— Objective Tests.

11 . A.C. Fundamentals …453—496

Generation of Alternating Voltages and Currents—

Equations of the Alternating Voltages and Currents—

M

Alternate Method for the Equations of Alternating

Voltages and currents — Simple Waveforms — Complex

Waveforms — Cycle — Time- Period — Frequency —

Amplitude — Different Forms of E.M.F. Equation — Phase —

Phase Difference — RootMean Square (R.M.S.) Value —

Mid-ordinate Method — Analytical Method — R.M.S. Value

of a Complex Wave — Average Value — Form Factor —

Crest or Peak Factor — R.M.S. Value of H.W. Rectified

A.C. — Average Value— Form Factor of H.W. Rectified

—Representation of Alternating Quantities— Vector

Diagrams Using R.M.S. Values — Vector Diagrams of

Sine Waves of Same Frequency — Addition of Two

Alternating Quantities— Addition and Subtraction of

Vectors— A.C. Through Resistance, Inductance and

Capacitance — A.C. through Pure Ohmic Resistance

alone— A.C. through Pure Inductancealone— Complex

Voltage Applied to Pure Inductance— A.C. through

Capacitance alone Objective Tests.

12

■ Complex Numbers

… 497-506

Mathematical Representation of Vectors — Symbolic

Notation— Significance of Operator/— Conjugate Complex

Numbers — Trigonometrical Form ofVector — Exponential

Form ofVector — Polar Form ofVector Representation —

Addition and Subtraction of Vector Quantities —

Multiplication and Division of Vector Quantities —

Power and Root of Vectors — The 120° Operator —

Objective Tests.

13 . Series A.C. Circuits

…507-556

A.C. through Resistance and Inductance— Power Factor-

Active and Reactive Components of Circuit Current-

I— Active, Reactive and Apparent Power— Q-factor of

a Coil — Power in an Iron-cored Chocking Coil — A.C.

Through Resistance and Capacitance— Dielectric Foss

and Power Factor of a Capacitor— Resistance, Inductance

and Capacitance in Series— Resonance in R-L-C Circuits—

Graphical Representation of Resonance — Resonance

Curve — Half-power Bandwidth of a Resonant Circuit —

Bandwidth B at any Off-resonance Frequency —

Determination of Upper and Fower Half-Power

Frequencies— Values of Edge Frequencies— Q-Factor

ofa Resonant Series Circuit— Circuit Current at Frequencies

Other than Resonant Frequencies — Relation Between

Resonant Power P Q and Off-resonant Power P — Objective

Test.

(m)

14, Parallel A.C. Circuits

…557-598

Solving Parallel Circuits — Vector or Phasor Method —

Admittance Method — Application of Admittance Method —

Complex or Phasor Algebra — Series-Parallel Circuits —

Series Equivalent of a Parallel Circuit — Parallel Equaivalent

of a Series Circuit — Resonance in Parallel Circuits —

Graphic Representation of Parallel Resonance — Points

to Remember — Bandwidth ofa Parallel ResonantCircuit —

Q-factor of a Parallel Circuit— Objective Tests.

- A.C. Network Analysis

Introduction— Kirchhoff’s Laws — Mesh Analysis — Nodal

Analysis — Superposition Theorem— The venin’s

Theorem — Reciprocity Theorem — Norton’s Theorem —

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem-Millman’s

Theorem.

- A.C. Bridges

A.C. Bridges — Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge — Maxwell-

Wien Bridge — Anderson Bridge — Hay’s Bridge — The

Owen Bridge — Heaviside Compbell Equal Ratio Bridge —

Capacitance Bridge— DeSauty Bridge— Schering Bridge—

Wien Series Bridge — Wien Parallel Bridge — Objective

Tests.

- ■ A.C. Filter Networks

Introduction — Applications — Different Types of Filters —

Octaves and Decades of frequency— Decible System-

Value of 1 dB — Low-Pass RC Filter — Other Types of

Low-Pass Filters — Low-Pass RL Filter — High-Pass R C

Filter— High Pass R L Filter— R-C Bandpass Filter— R-C

Bandstop Filter — The-3 dB Frequencies — Roll-off of

the Response Curve— Bandstop and Bandpass Resonant

Filter Circuits— Series-and Parallel-Resonant Bandstop

Filters — Parallel-Resonant Bandstop Filter — Series-

Resonant Bandpass Filter— Parallel-Resonant Bandpass

Filter— Objective Test.

18 ■ Circle Diagrams

Circle Diagram ofaSeriesCircuit — Rigorous Mathematical

Treatment— Constant Resistance but Variable

Reactance— Properties of Constant Reactance But

Variable Resistance Circuit — Simple Transmission Line

Circuit.

(»0

…627-640

…641-654

…655-664

19 ■ Polyphase Circuits

…665-752

Generation of Polyphase Voltages— Phase Sequence-

Phases Sequence At Load— Numbering of Phases—

Interconnection of Three Phases — Star or Wye (Y)

Connection— Values of Phase Currents— Voltages and

Currents in Y-Connection — Delta (D) or Mesh

Connection— Balanced Y/D and D/Y Conversions —

Star and Delta Connected Lighting Loads— Power Factor

Improvement — Power Correction Equipment — Parallel

Loads — Power Measurement in 3-phase Circuits — Three

Wattmeter Method— Two Wattmeter Method — Balanced

or Unbalanced load — Two Wattmeter Method-Ba/anced

Load — Variations in Wattmeter Readings— Leading Power

Factor— Power Factor -Balanced Load— Balanced Load-

LPF — Reactive Voltamperes with One Wattmeter —

One Wattmeter Method — Copper Required for

Transmitting Power Under Fixed Conditions — Double

Subscript Notation— Unbalanced Loads— Unbalanced

D-connected Load— Four-wire Star-connected Unbalanced

Load— Unbalanced Y-connected Load Without Neutral-

Mi 1 1 man’s Thereom — Application of Kirchhoff’s Laws —

Delta/Star and Star/Delta Conversions— Unbalanced

Star-connected Non-inductive Load— Phase Sequence

Indicators— Objective Tests.

20 . Harmonics

…753-778

Fundamental Wave and Harmonics — Different Complex

Waveforms — General Equation of a Complex Wave —

R.M.S. Value of a Complex Wave — Form Factor of a

Copmplex Wave— Power Supplied by a Com pi ex Wave-

Harmonics in Single-phase A.C Circuits — Selective

Resonance Due to Harmonics — Effect of Harmonics

on Measurement of Inductance and Capacitance —

Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems — Harmonics

in Single and 3-Phase Transformers — Objective Tests.

21 . Fourier Series

…779-814

Harmonic Analysis — Periodic Functions— Trigonometric

Fourier Series — Alternate Forms of T rigonometric Fourier

Series— Certain Useful Integral Calculus Theorems—

Evaluation of Fourier Constants — Different Types of

Functional Symmetries— Line or Frequency Spectrum —

Procedure for Finding the Fourier Series of a Given

Function — Wave Analyzer — Spectrum Analyzer — Fourier

Analyzer — Harmonic Synthesis — Objective Tests.

(xiii)

22 . Transients

Introduction — Types of Transients — Important Differ-

ential Equations— Transients in R-L Circuits (D.C.),—

Short Circuit Current — Time Constant— Transients in

R-L Circuits (A.C.) — Transients in R-C Series Circuits

(D.C.)— Transients in R-C Series Circuits (A.C)— Double

Energy T ransients— Objective Tests.

Symmetrical Components

Introduction — The Positive-sequence Components —

The Negative-sequence Components— The Zero-sequence

Components— Graphical Composition of Sequence

Vectors— Evaluation of V A1 or V,— Evaluation of V A2 or

V 2 — Evaluation V AO or V 0 — Zero Sequence Components

of Current and Voltage— Unbalanced Star Load form

Unbalanced Three-phase Three-Wire System —

Unbalanced Star Load Supplied from Balanced Three-

phase Three-wire System — MeasurementofSymmetrical

Components of Circuits — Measurement of Positive and

Negative-sequence Voltages— Measurement of Zero-

sequence Component of Voltage— Objective Tests.

24 . Introduction to Electrical Energy Generation

Preference for Electricity — Comparison of Sources of

Power — Sources for Generation of Electricity — Brief

Aspects of Electrical Energy Systems— Utility and

Consumers — Why is the Three-phase a.c. system Most

Popular?— Cost of Generation— Staggering of Loads

during peak-demand Hours — Classifications of Power

Transmission — Selecting A.C. Transmission Voltage

fora Particular Case— Conventional Sources of Electrical

Energy— Steam Power Stations (Coal-fired)— Nuclear

Power Stations — Advantages of Nuclear Generation —

Disadvantages— Hydroelectric Generation — Non-

Conventional Energy Sources— Photo Voltaic Cells

(P.V. Cells or SOLAR Cells)— Fuel Cells— Principle of

Operation — Chemical Process (with Acidic Electrolyte) —

Schematic Diagram— Array for Large outputs— High

Lights — Wind Power — Background— Basic Scheme —

Indian Scenario.

Index

…815-834

…835-854

…855-864

(x/’v)

VOLUME – I

BASIC ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Contents

CHAPTER

Learning Objectives

■ Electron Drift Velocity

■ Charge Velocity and

Velocity of Field Propagation

■ The Idea of Electric Potential

Resistance

■ Unit of Resistance

■ Law of Resistance

■ Units of Resistivity

Conductance and

Conductivity

■ Temperature Coefficient of

Resistance

■ Value of a at Different

Temperatures

■ Variation of Resistivity with

Temperature

- Ohm’s Law

■ Resistance in Series

■ Voltage Divider Rule

■ Resistance in Parallel

► Types of Resistors

■ Nonlinear Resistors

■ Varistor

■ Short and Open Circuits

■ ‘Shorts’ in a Series Circuit

■ ‘Opens’ in Series Circuit

■ ‘Open’s in a Parallel Circuit

■ ‘Shorts’ in Parallel Circuits

■ Division of Current in Parallel

Circuits

■ Equivalent Resistance

■ Duality Between Series and

Parallel Circuits

■ Relative Potential

• Voltage Divider Circuits

ELECTRIC

CURRENT

AND OHM S

LAW

Ohm’s law defines the relationship

between voltage, resistance and

current. This law is widely employed

while designing electronic circuits

2 Electrical Technology

1.1. Electron Drift Velocity

Suppose that in a conductor, the number of free electrons

available per m of the conductor material is n and let their

axial drift velocity be v metres/second. In time dt, distance

travelled would be V x dt. If A is area of cross-section of the

conductor, then the volume is vAdt and the number of elec-

trons contained in this volume is vA dt. Obviously, all these

electrons will cross the conductor cross-section in time dt. If

e is the charge of each electron, then total charge which crosses

the section in time dt is dq = nAev dt.

Since current is the rate of flow of charge, it is given as

. _ dq _ nAev dt

dt

dt

i = nAev

The electron moves at the

Fermi speed, and has only

a tiny drift velocity superimposed

by the applied electric field

2

Current density, J = HA = ne V ampere/metre”

Assuming a normal current density J = 1.55 x 10 6 A/m 2 , n = 1 0 2 ’ for a copper conductor

and e = 1.6 x 10 49 coulomb, we get

1.55 x 10 6 = 10 29 x 1.6 x Iff 49 x v .‘.v = 9.1 y. 10 4 m/s = 0.58 cm/min

It is seen that contrary to the common but mistaken view, the electron drift velocity is rather very

slow and is independent of the current flowing and the area of the conductor.

— ^

N.B. Current density i.e., the current per unit area, is a vector quantity. It is denoted by the symbol J .

— >

Therefore, in vector notation, the relationship between current I and J is :

^ ^ >

I — J a [where a is the vector notation for area ‘a’]

For extending the scope of the above relationship, so that it becomes applicable for area of any shape, we

write :

I = J .da

The magnitude of the current density can, therefore, be written as J-cl

Example 1.1. A conductor material has a free-electron density of 10^ 4 electrons per metre 3 .

When a voltage is applied, a constant drift velocity of 1.5 x 10~ metre/second is attained by the

electrons. If the cross-sectional area of the material is 1 cm 2 , calculate the magnitude of the current.

Electronic charge is 1.6 x 10 49 coulomb. (Electrical Engg. Aligarh Muslim University)

Solution. The magnitude of the current is

i = nAev amperes

Here, n = 10~ 4 ; A = 1 cm 2 = 10 4 m 2

e = 1.6 x lO 49 C ; v = 1.5 x 10 4 m/s

i = 10 24 x 10 4 x 1.6 x 10 49 x 1.5 x 10^ = 0.24 A

1.2. Charge Velocity and Velocity of Field Propagation

The speed with which charge drifts in a conductor is called the velocity of charge. As seen from

above, its value is quite low, typically fraction of a metre per second.

However, the speed with which the effect of e.m.f. is experienced at all parts of the conductor

resulting in the flow of current is called the velocity of propagation of electrical field. It is indepen-

dent of current and voltage and has high but constant value of nearly 3 x 10 8 m/s.

Electric Current and Ohm’s Law 3

Example 1.2. Find the velocity of charge leading to 1 A current which flows in a copper

2

## Preface

A Preface to the Twenty-Third Revised Multicoloured Edition Authors feel happy to present to their esteemed readers this revised first multicoloured edition of Vol. I of “A Textbook of Electrical Technology”. To provide a comprehensive treatment of topics in ‘‘Basic Electrical Engineering’’ both for electrical as well as non-electrical students pursuing their studies in civil, mechanical, mining, textile, chemical, industrial, environmental, aerospace, electronic and computer engineering, information technology both at the Degree and Diploma level.Textbook Of Electrical Technology

Based on the suggestions received from our esteemed readers, both from India and abroad, the scope of the book has been enlarged according to their requirements. Establishment of Technological Universities have taken place in recent past. This resulted into a pool of expert manpower within a large area. Unification of syllabi has taken place and the question papers set during the last 4-5 years have a wider variety and are of more inquisitive nature. Solutions to these with brief logical reasonings have been added for the benefit of our student community. Many universities include a brief coverage on methods of “Electrical Power Generation”, in their first and basic paper on this subject. Hence, this revision includes an introductory chapter on this topic. Textbook Of Electrical Technology

It is earnestly hoped that with these extensive additions and revisions, this revised edition will prove even more useful to our numerous readers in developing more confidence while appearing at national competitive examinations. I would like to thank my Publishers particularly Mr. Ravindra Kumar Gupta, M.D. and Mr. Bhagirath Kaushik, Regional Manager (Western India) of S. Chand & Company Ltd., for the personal interest they look in the publishing of this revised and enlarged edition. Our student-friends, teacher-colleagues, Booksellers and University authorities have been showing immense faith and affection in our book, which is acknowledged with modesty and regards. We are sure that this revised edition will satisfy their needs to a still greater extent and serve its cause more effectively Textbook Of Electrical Technology

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### Preface to the Twenty-second Edition

The primary objective of Vol. I of A Textbook of Electrical Technology is to provide a comprehensive treatment of topics in ‘‘Basic Electrical Engineering’’ both for electrical as well as nonelectrical students pursuing their studies in civil, mechanical, mining, textile, chemical, industrial, environmental, aerospace, electronic and computer engineering both at the Degree and Diploma level. Based on the suggestions received from our esteemed readers, both from India and abroad, the scope of the book has been enlarged according to their requirements. Almost half the solved examples have been deleted and replaced by latest examination papers set upto 1994 in different engineering colleges and technical institutions in India and abroad. Following major additions/changes have been made in the present edition : 1. Three new chapters entitled (a) A.C. Network Analysis (b) A.C. Filter Networks and (c) Fourier Series have been added thereby widening the scope of the book. 2. The chapter on Network Theorems has been updated with the addition of Millman’s Theorem (as applicable to voltage and current sources or both) and an article on Power Transfer Efficiency relating to Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. 3. The additions to the chapter on Capacitors include detailed articles on Transient Relations during Capacitor Charging and Discharging Cycles and also the Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor with Initial Charge. 4. Chapter on Chemical Effects of Current has been thoroughly revised with the inclusion of Electronic Battery Chargers, Static Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Systems, High Temperature Batteries, Secondary Hybrid Cells, Fuel Cells and Aircraft and Submarine Batteries. 5. A detailed description of Thermocouple Ammeter has been added to the chapter on Electrical Instruments. 6. The chapter on Series A.C. Circuits has been enriched with many articles such as Determination of Upper and Lower Half-power Frequencies, Value of Edge Frequencies and Relation between Resonant Power and Off-resonance Power. It is earnestly hoped that with these extensive additions and revisions, the present edition will prove even more useful to our numerous readers than the earlier ones. As ever before, we are thankful to our publishers particularly Sh. Ravindra Kumar Gupta for the personal interest he took in the expeditious printing of this book and for the highly attractive cover design suggested by him. Our sincere thanks go to their hyperactive and result-oriented overseas manager for his globe-trotting efforts to popularise the book from one corner of the globe to the other. Lastly we would love to record our sincere thanks to two brilliant ladies; Mrs. Janaki Krishnan from ever-green fairy land of Kerala and Ms. Shweta Bhardwaj from the fast-paced city of Delhi for the secretarial support they provided us during the prepration of this book.