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Digital Control Engineering Analysis and Design PDF

Digital Control Engineering: Analysis and Design – Digital controllers are part of nearly all modern personal, industrial, and transportation systems. Every senior or graduate student of electrical, chemical or mechanical engineering should therefore be familiar with the basic theory of digital controllers. This new text covers the fundamental principles and applications of digital control engineering, with emphasis on engineering design.

Fadali and Visioli cover analysis and design of digitally controlled systems and describe applications of digital controls in a wide range of fields. With worked examples and Matlab applications in every chapter and many end-of-chapter assignments, this text provides both theory and practice for those coming to digital control engineering for the first time, whether as a student or practicing engineer.

  • Extensive Use of computational tools: Matlab sections at end of each chapter show how to implement concepts from the chapter
  • Frees the student from the drudgery of mundane calculations and allows him to consider more subtle aspects of control system analysis and design
  • An engineering approach to digital controls: emphasis throughout the book is on design of control systems. Mathematics is used to help explain concepts, but throughout the text discussion is tied to design and implementation. For example coverage of analog controls in chapter 5 is not simply a review, but is used to show how analog control systems map to digital control systems
  • Review of Background Material: contains review material to aid understanding of digital control analysis and design. Examples include discussion of discrete-time systems in time domain and frequency domain (reviewed from linear systems course) and root locus design in s-domain and z-domain (reviewed from feedback control course)
  • Inclusion of Advanced Topics
  • In addition to the basic topics required for a one semester senior/graduate class, the text includes some advanced material to make it suitable for an introductory graduate level class or for two quarters at the senior/graduate level. Examples of optional topics are state-space methods, which may receive brief coverage in a one semester course, and nonlinear discrete-time systems
  • Minimal Mathematics Prerequisites
  • The mathematics background required for understanding most of the book is based on what can be reasonably expected from the average electrical, chemical or mechanical engineering senior. This background includes three semesters of calculus, differential equations and basic linear algebra. Some texts on digital control require more

Preface – Digital Control Engineering

Control systems are an integral part of everyday life in today’s society. Theycontrol our appliances, our entertainment centers, our cars, and our office environ-ments; they control our industrial processes and our transportation systems; theycontrol our exploration of land, sea, air, and space. Almost all of these applicationsuse digital controllers implemented with computers, microprocessors, or digitalelectronics. Every electrical, chemical, or mechanical engineering senior or gradu-ate student should therefore be familiar with the basic theory of digitalcontrollers.This text is designed for a senior or combined senior/graduate-level course indigital controls in departments of mechanical, electrical, or chemical engineering.Although other texts are available on digital controls, most do not provide a satis-factory format for a senior/graduate-level class. Some texts have very few exam-ples to support the theory, and some were written before the wide availability of computer-aided-design (CAD) packages. Others use CAD packages in certainways but do not fully exploit their capabilities. Most available texts are based onthe assumption that students must complete several courses in systems and controltheory before they can be exposed to digital control. We disagree with thisassumption, and we firmly believe that students can learn digital control after aone-semester course covering the basics of analog control. As with other topicsthat started at the graduate level—linear algebra and Fourier analysis to name afew—the time has come for digital control to become an integral part of theundergraduate curriculum

New to this edition – Digital Control Engineering

We made several important changes and added material to the second edition:1. We added a brief introduction to Simulink simulation of discrete-time systemsto Chapter 3.2. We moved the explanation of the bilinear transform to Chapter 4, where thebilinear transform is first introduced, from Chapter 6.3. We added closed-loop Ziegler-Nichols design to Chapter 5.4. We added pole-zero matching to Chapter 6. This is a simple design approachthat was used in some examples but was not included in the first edition.5. We have improved the explanation of the direct control design (Section 6.6)and of the finite settling time design (Section 6.7).6. We added the Hankel realization to Chapter 8 to provide a systematic methodfor multi-input-multi-output system realization. Because this material is basedon the singular value decomposition, a section on the singular valuedecomposition was added to Appendix III.

7. In the first edition, the Hamiltonian system was included, but the significanceof its eigenstructure was not discussed. We added a section on theeigenstructure of the Hamiltonian system to Chapter 10.8. The first edition did not include a discussion of the stability of the response of the system to an external input. We added input-output stability and the circlecriterion to Chapter 11.9. We added 23 new problems, including several new computer exercises.It became clear to the first author that to have a suitable text for his courseand similar courses, he needed to find a partner to satisfactorily complete the text.He gradually collected material for the text and started looking for a qualified andinterested partner. Finally, he found a co-author who shared his interest in digitalcontrol and the belief that it can be presented at a level amenable to the averageundergraduate engineering student.For many years, Dr. Antonio Visioli has been teaching an introductory and alaboratory course on automatic control, as well as a course on control systemstechnology. Further, his research interests are in the fields of industrial regulatorsand robotics. Although he contributed to the material presented throughout thetext, his major contribution was adding material related to the practical designand implementation of digital control systems. This material is rarely covered incontrol systems texts but is an essential prerequisite for applying digital controltheory in practice.

The text is written to be as self-contained as possible. However, the reader isexpected to have completed a semester of linear systems and classical control.Throughout the text, extensive use is made of the numerical computation andcomputer-aided-design package MATLAB. As with all computational tools, theenormous capabilities of MATLAB are no substitute for a sound understandingof the theory presented in the text. As an example of the inappropriate use of sup-porting technology, we recall the story of the driver who followed the instructionsof his GPS system and drove into the path of an oncoming train!1The readermust use MATLAB as a tool to support the theory without blindly accepting itscomputational results.

Table of Contents – Digital Control Engineering

Preface

Approach

Features

New to this edition

Organization of text

Supporting material

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Introduction to Digital Control

Objectives

1.1 Why digital control?

1.2 The structure of a digital control system

1.3 Examples of digital control system

Resources

Chapter 2. Discrete-Time Systems

Objectives

2.1 Analog systems with piecewise constant inputs

2.2 Difference equations

2.3 The z-transform

2.4 Computer-aided design

2.5 z-Transform solution of difference equations

2.6 The time response of a discrete-time system

2.7 The modified z-transform

2.8 Frequency response of discrete-time systems

2.9 The sampling theorem

Resources

Chapter 3. Modeling of Digital Control Systems

Objectives

3.1 ADC model

3.2 DAC model

3.3 The transfer function of the ZOH

3.4 Effect of the sampler on the transfer function of a cascade

3.5 DAC, analog subsystem, and ADC combination transfer function

3.6 Systems with transport lag

3.7 The closed-loop transfer function

3.8 Analog disturbances in a digital system

3.9 Steady-state error and error constants

3.10 MATLAB commands

Resources

Chapter 4. Stability of Digital Control Systems

Objectives

4.1 Definitions of stability

4.2 Stable z-domain pole locations

4.3 Stability conditions

4.4 Stability determination

4.5 Jury test

4.6 Nyquist criterion

Resources

Chapter 5. Analog Control System Design

Objectives

5.1 Root locus

5.2 Root locus using MATLAB

5.3 Design specifications and the effect of gain variation

5.4 Root locus design

5.5 Empirical tuning of PID controllers

Resources

Chapter 6. Digital Control System Design

Objectives

6.1 z-Domain root locus

6.2 z-Domain digital control system design

6.3 Digital implementation of analog controller design

6.4 Direct z-domain digital controller design

6.5 Frequency response design

6.6 Direct control design

6.7 Finite settling time design

Resources

Chapter 7. State–Space Representation

Objectives

7.1 State variables

7.2 State–space representation

7.3 Linearization of nonlinear state equations

7.4 The solution of linear state–space equations

7.5 The transfer function matrix

7.6 Discrete-time state–space equations

7.7 Solution of discrete-time state–space equations

7.8 z-Transfer function from state–space equations

7.9 Similarity transformation

Resources

Chapter 8. Properties of State–Space Models

Objectives

8.1 Stability of state–space realizations

8.2 Controllability and stabilizability

8.3 Observability and detectability

8.4 Poles and zeros of multivariable systems

8.5 State–space realizations

8.6 Duality

8.7 Hankel realization

Resources – Digital Control Engineering

Chapter 9. State Feedback Control

Objectives

9.1 State and output feedback

9.2 Pole placement

9.3 Servo problem

9.4 Invariance of system zeros

9.5 State estimation

9.6 Observer state feedback

9.7 Pole assignment using transfer functions

Resources

Chapter 10. Optimal Control

Objectives

10.1 Optimization

10.2 Optimal control

10.3 The linear quadratic regulator

10.4 Steady-state quadratic regulator

10.5 Hamiltonian system

Resources – Digital Control Engineering

Chapter 11. Elements of Nonlinear Digital Control Systems

Objectives

11.1 Discretization of nonlinear systems

11.2 Nonlinear difference equations

11.3 Equilibrium of nonlinear discrete-time systems

11.4 Lyapunov stability theory

11.5 Stability of analog systems with digital control

11.6 State plane analysis

11.7 Discrete-time nonlinear controller design

11.8 Input-output stability and the small gain theorem

Resources

Chapter 12. Practical Issues

Objectives

12.1 Design of the hardware and software architecture

12.2 Choice of the sampling period

12.3 Controller structure

12.4 PID control

12.5 Sampling period switching

Resources

APPENDIX I: Table of Laplace and z-Transforms*

APPENDIX II: Properties of the z-Transform

APPENDIX III: Review of Linear Algebra

A.1 Matrices

A.2 Equality of matrices

A.3 Matrix arithmetic

A.4 Determinant of a matrix

A.5 Inverse of a matrix

A.6 Trace of a matrix

A.7 Rank of a matrix

A.8 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

A.9 Partitioned matrix

A.10 Norm of a vector

A.11 Matrix norms

A.12 Quadratic forms

A.13 Singular value decomposition and pseudoinverses

A.14 Matrix differentiation/integration

A.15 Kronecker product

Resources

Index  

Details – Digital Control Engineering

No. of pages: 600Language: EnglishCopyright: © Academic Press 2013Published: 6th September 2012Imprint: Academic PressHardcover ISBN: 9780123943910eBook ISBN: 9780123983244

About the Author

M. Sami Fadali

Professor and Chair of Department of Electrical & Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA. M. Sami Fadali earned a BS in Electrical Engineering from Cairo University in 1974, an MS from the Control Systems Center, UMIST, England, in 1977 and a Ph. D. from the University of Wyoming in 1980. He was an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah , Saudi Arabia 1981-1983. From 1983-85, he was a Post Doctoral Fellow at Colorado State University. In 1985, he joined the Electrical Engineering Dept. at the University of Nevada, Reno, where he is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering. In 1994 he was a visiting professor at Oakland University and GM Research and Development Labs. He spent the summer of 2000 as a Senior Engineer at TRW, San Bernardino. His research interests are in the areas of fuzzy logic stability and control, state estimation and fault detection, and applications to power systems, renewable energy, and physiological systems

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair of Department of Electrical & Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.

Antonio Visioli

Full Professor in Control Systems at the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of the University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy He received the Laurea degree in Electronic Engineering from the University of Parma in 1995. From September 1994 to February 1995 he was an ERASMUS student at the Electrical and Electronic Department of the Loughborough University of Technology (now Loughborough University), UK. From September 1995 to November 2012 he was with the Department of Information Engineering (formerly, Department of Electronics for Automation) of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Brescia . In 1999 he received the Ph.D. degree in Applied Mechanics from the University of Brescia. He is a senior member of IEEE, a member of the IFAC Technical Commitee on Education, a member of the Technical Committee on Education of the IEEE Control Systems Society, a member of the subcommittees on Event-Based Control & Signal and on Industrial Automated Systems and Control of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Technical Committee on Factory Automation, and a member of the national board of Anipla (Italian Association for Automation).

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor in Control Systems, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author – Digital Control Engineering: Analysis and Design

Professor and Chair of Department of Electrical & Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.
M. Sami Fadali earned a BS in Electrical Engineering from Cairo University in 1974, an MS from the Control Systems Center, UMIST, England, in 1977 and a Ph. D. from the University of Wyoming in 1980. He was an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah , Saudi Arabia 1981-1983.

From 1983-85, he was a Post Doctoral Fellow at Colorado State University. In 1985, he joined the Electrical Engineering Dept. at the University of Nevada, Reno, where he is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering. In 1994 he was a visiting professor at Oakland University and GM Research and Development Labs. He spent the summer of 2000 as a Senior Engineer at TRW, San Bernardino. His research interests are in the areas of fuzzy logic stability and control, state estimation and fault detection, and applications to power systems, renewable energy, and physiological systems

Full Professor in Control Systems at the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of the University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
He received the Laurea degree in Electronic Engineering from the University of Parma in 1995. From September 1994 to February 1995 he was an ERASMUS student at the Electrical and Electronic Department of the Loughborough University of Technology (now Loughborough University), UK.

From September 1995 to November 2012 he was with the Department of Information Engineering (formerly, Department of Electronics for Automation) of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Brescia . In 1999 he received the Ph.D. degree in Applied Mechanics from the University of Brescia.

He is a senior member of IEEE, a member of the IFAC Technical Commitee on Education, a member of the Technical Committee on Education of the IEEE Control Systems Society, a member of the subcommittees on Event-Based Control & Signal and on Industrial Automated Systems and Control of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Technical Committee on Factory Automation, and a member of the national board of Anipla (Italian Association for Automation).

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