Cambridge Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine 1st Edition

Cambridge Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine pdf

Download Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine – Cambridge Pocket Clinician / Internal Medicine is designed to provide the busy clinician with precisely the information needed where and when it is needed.

Download Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine

The Associate Editors and contributors are internationally recognized authorities, and they have organized the content specifically so as to convey the essentials necessary for diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management, treatment and follow-up.

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Over 600 diseases and conditions are covered in detail. Cambridge Pocket Clinician / Internal Medicine can be counted on as an essential resource, particularly in this current era of shortened physician patient encounters and the need for rapid clinical decision-making.

Table of Content

Contents
Preface page xxix
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) ……………………. 1
Abscesses and Fistulas ……………………………. 5
Acanthosis Nigricans …………………………….. 7
Acne ……………………………………….. 9
Acromegaly ………………………………….. 12
Actinic Keratosis ……………………………….. 15
Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis ……………………… 16
Acute Bacterial Meningitis ………………………… 18
Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy ……………………… 21
Acute Heart Failure ……………………………… 23
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia ……………………… 29
Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia ………………………. 37
Acute Myocarditides …………………………….. 41
Acute Pancreatitis ………………………………. 45
Acute Pericarditis ………………………………. 48
Acute Renal Failure ……………………………… 50
Acute Respiratory Acidosis ………………………… 55
Acute Respiratory Alkalosis ………………………… 56
Acute Respiratory Failure/Monitoring …………………. 58
Adenocarcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater ……………….. 62
Adenovirus …………………………………… 63
Adrenal Insufficiency ……………………………. 66
Adrenal Tumors ……………………………….. 70
Adult Optic Neuropathies …………………………. 74
Age Related Maculopathy …………………………. 80
ix
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Air Embolus ………………………………….. 83
Alcohol Abuse, Dependence, and Withdrawal ……………. 85
Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) ………………………. 89
Allergic Rhinitis ……………………………….. 93
Alopecia …………………………………….. 96
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin ……………………………. 100
Alzheimer’s Disease ……………………………. 101
Amaurosis Fugax ……………………………… 103
Amblyopia ………………………………….. 104
Amebiasis …………………………………… 106
Amebic Liver Abscess …………………………… 109
Amyloidosis …………………………………. 111
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) …………………. 115
Analgesic Nephropathy And NSAID-induced ARF ………… 117
Anaphylaxis …………………………………. 120
Anemias Secondary to Systemic Disease ………………. 122
Anisakiasis ………………………………….. 125
Anorectal Tumors ……………………………… 126
Anorexia Nervosa ……………………………… 129
Antibiotic-Associated and Pseudomembranous Colitis ……… 133
Antiphospholipid Antibodies ………………………. 135
Aortic Coarctation ……………………………… 138
Aortic Dissection ……………………………… 140
Aortic Insufficiency (AI)………………………….. 143
Aortitis …………………………………….. 146
Aphasia ……………………………………. 149
Aplastic Anemia ………………………………. 150
Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess ………………….. 153
Appendicitis …………………………………. 153
Arterial Embolus ………………………………. 156
Ascariasis …………………………………… 160
Ascites …………………………………….. 162
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Aspergillosis …………………………………. 166
Asthma …………………………………….. 171
Atelectasis ………………………………….. 176
Atherosclerotic Occlusive Disease …………………… 179
Atopic Dermatitis ……………………………… 187
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) …………………………… 188
Atrial Flutter …………………………………. 191
Atrial Premature Complexes ………………………. 194
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) ………………………… 195
Atrial Tachycardia (AT) ………………………….. 197
Atrioventricular Block …………………………… 198
Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) ………………………. 201
Autonomic Dysfunction …………………………. 204
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Renal Disease ………….. 206
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Renal Disease …………… 208
AV Reentrant Tachycardia (AVRT) …………………… 209
AV-Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia (AVNRT) ……………… 211
Back or Neck Pain ……………………………… 213
Bacterial Arthritis ……………………………… 214
Bacterial Pneumonia ……………………………. 218
Balanitis ……………………………………. 220
Bartter’s Syndrome …………………………….. 223
Bell’s Palsy ………………………………….. 224
Benign Disorders of the Rectum and Anus ……………… 225
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ………………………. 228
Benign Tumors of the Liver ……………………….. 232
Biliary Tract Motility Disorders …………………….. 235
Biotin Deficiency ……………………………… 238
Bladder Tumors ………………………………. 239
Blastocystis Hominis Infection …………………….. 242
Blastomyces Dermatitidis ………………………… 243
Blepharitis ………………………………….. 246
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Brain Abscess ………………………………… 248
Brain Death …………………………………. 249
Bronchiectasis ……………………………….. 250
Bronchiolitis …………………………………. 253
Bronchitis, Acute ……………………………… 257
Budd-Chiari Syndrome ………………………….. 259
Buerger’s Disease ……………………………… 261
Bulimia Nervosa ………………………………. 263
Bullous Pemphigoid ……………………………. 266
Candidiasis ………………………………….. 270
Candidiasis: Oral ……………………………… 272
Carcinoid …………………………………… 273
Cardiac Arrest ………………………………… 277
Cardiac Trauma ………………………………. 280
Cardiac Tumors ………………………………. 281
Cat Scratch Disease …………………………….. 286
Cecal Volvulus ……………………………….. 288
Celiac Sprue and Malabsorption ……………………. 289
Cellulitis ……………………………………. 292
Cerebrovascular Disease & Stroke …………………… 294
Cervical Spine Disorders …………………………. 297
Chediak Higashi Syndrome ……………………….. 298
Cheilitis ……………………………………. 299
Cholangiocarcinoma ……………………………. 299
Choledochal Cysts …………………………….. 302
Cholestasis ………………………………….. 305
Cholestasis of Pregnancy …………………………. 308
Chordae Tendineae Rupture ………………………. 309
Chromium Deficiency …………………………… 310
Chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis ……………………. 311
Chronic Bundle Branch Block and Hemi-blocks ………….. 312
Chronic Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)……………….. 314
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Chronic Granulomatous Disease ……………………. 317
Chronic Heart Failure …………………………… 318
Chronic Kidney Disease …………………………. 327
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ……………………. 333
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia ……………………. 336
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ………………. 340
Chronic Pancreatitis ……………………………. 343
Chronic Renal Failure …………………………… 346
Chronic Respiratory Acidosis ………………………. 351
Chronic Respiratory Alkalosis ……………………… 352
Chronic Respiratory Failure ……………………….. 353
Churg Strauss Disease …………………………… 357
Clostridium Infections ………………………….. 360
Cluster Headache ……………………………… 362
Coccidioides Immitis …………………………… 363
Colon Polyps and Tumors ………………………… 367
Coma ……………………………………… 370
Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1
(HIV-1) Infection ………………………………. 371
Condyloma Acuminata ………………………….. 388
Confusion & Delirium …………………………… 389
Congenital Qualitative Platelet Disorders ………………. 390
Conjunctival Tumors ……………………………. 393
Constipation and Fecal Impaction …………………… 394
Constrictive Pericarditis …………………………. 397
Contact Dermatitis …………………………….. 398
Contraception for the Internist …………………….. 399
Corneal Ulcer ………………………………… 403
Coronary Artery Injury ………………………….. 406
Coronary Syndromes, Acute ………………………. 407
Coronavirus/Common Cold ………………………. 413
Cough …………………………………….. 414
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Crigler-Najjer Syndrome Type 1 …………………….. 417
Crigler-Najjer Type 2 ……………………………. 419
Crohn’s Disease ………………………………. 420
Croup ……………………………………… 424
Cryptococcus Neoformans ……………………….. 426
Cryptosporidiosis ……………………………… 430
Crystal-Induced Arthritis …………………………. 432
Cushing’s Syndrome ……………………………. 435
Cutaneous Larva Migrans ………………………… 439
Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (LE) ………………… 441
Cutaneous Vasculitis ……………………………. 444
Cyclosporiasis ………………………………… 447
Cyst of Tunica Albuginea of Testis …………………… 449
Cystic Fibrosis ……………………………….. 449
Cystic Fibrosis ……………………………….. 452
Cysticercosis …………………………………. 455
Cystinuria …………………………………… 458
Cystitis and Pyelonephritis ……………………….. 458
Cytomegalovirus ………………………………. 461
Deep Venous Thrombosis ………………………… 463
Dementia …………………………………… 467
Dent’s Disease ……………………………….. 468
Dermatofibroma ………………………………. 469
Diabetes Insipidus …………………………….. 470
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 …………………………. 472
Treatment Goals ………………………………. 474
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 …………………………. 475
Diabetic Retinopathy …………………………… 479
Diarrhea ……………………………………. 482
Dientamoeba Fragilis Infection …………………….. 485
Diphtheria ………………………………….. 487
Disorders of Neutrophil Function …………………… 489
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, Thrombotic
Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
(DIC/TTP/HUS) ………………………………. 490
Diverticulitis and Diverticular Disease ………………… 494
Drug Allergy …………………………………. 497
Drug and Toxin-induced Liver Diseases ……………….. 500
Drug Eruptions ……………………………….. 503
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome ………………………… 508
Dyspepsia …………………………………… 509
Dysphagia ………………………………….. 512
Dyspnea ……………………………………. 514
Echinococcosis ……………………………….. 517
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome …………………………. 520
Encephalitis …………………………………. 522
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition ……………………. 524
Enterobiasis (Pinworm) …………………………. 530
Enteroviruses ………………………………… 532
Epididymitis and Orchitis ………………………… 535
Epilepsies …………………………………… 536
Episcleritis and Scleritis …………………………. 537
Erectile Dysfunction ……………………………. 539
Erysipelas and Cellulitis …………………………. 543
Erythema Multiforme Major; Aka Stevens Johnson Syndrome
(see also Drug Eruptions) ………………………… 545
Erythema Nodosum ……………………………. 548
Esophageal Cancer …………………………….. 550
Esophageal Infections and Inflammation ………………. 551
Esophageal Motor Disorders ………………………. 556
Essential Tremor ………………………………. 559
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness ……………………… 560
Exfoliative Dermatitis …………………………… 561
Eyelid Lesions ………………………………… 562
Fanconi Syndrome …………………………….. 563
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Fever of Unknown Origin ………………………… 564
Fibromas …………………………………… 568
Fibromyalgia ………………………………… 568
Filariasis ……………………………………. 571
Folic Acid/Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Deficiency ………….. 575
Folliculitis and Furunculosis ………………………. 580
Food Allergies ………………………………… 582
Food Poisoning ……………………………….. 586
Foreign Bodies and Bezoars ……………………….. 589
Fulminant Hepatic Failure ………………………… 592
Galactosemia ………………………………… 596
Gallbladder Cancers ……………………………. 599
Gallstone Disease ……………………………… 600
Gastric Adenocarcinoma …………………………. 604
Gastric Carcinoids ……………………………… 605
Gastric Lymphoma …………………………….. 606
Gastric Stromal Tumor ………………………….. 607
Gastroenteritis ……………………………….. 608
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease ……………………. 610
Gastrointestinal Bleeding ………………………… 613
Gastropathy …………………………………. 617
Geographic Tongue …………………………….. 621
Giant Cell Arteritis …………………………….. 622
Giardiasis …………………………………… 623
Gilbert’s Syndrome …………………………….. 625
Gitelman’s Syndrome …………………………… 626
Glaucoma …………………………………… 626
Glomerular Diseases ……………………………. 630
Glucocorticoid-Remediable Aldosteronism …………….. 634
Glycogen Storage Disease ………………………… 635
Goiter ……………………………………… 638
Gonorrhea ………………………………….. 640
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Gordon Syndrome (Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 2) …….. 644
Granuloma Annulare …………………………… 645
Granulomatous Liver Disease ……………………… 646
Granulomatous Vasculitis ………………………… 647
Haemophilus Infections …………………………. 651
Hairy Cell Leukemia ……………………………. 653
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome …………………… 654
Hartnup’s Disease ……………………………… 656
Head and Neck Cancer ………………………….. 657
Head Trauma ………………………………… 662
Hearing Loss …………………………………. 663
Helicobacter Pylori …………………………….. 665
Hemiballismus ……………………………….. 669
Hemochromatosis …………………………….. 670
Hemophilia A and B ……………………………. 673
Hepatic Encephalopathy …………………………. 677
Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease ……………………. 680
Hepatitis A and E ……………………………… 682
Hepatitis B ………………………………….. 685
Hepatitis C ………………………………….. 688
Hepatitis Delta Virus ……………………………. 693
Hepatorenal Syndrome ………………………….. 694
Hereditary Elliptocytosis (HE) and Hereditary
Pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) …………………………. 696
Hereditary Spherocytosis ………………………… 698
Hernia …………………………………….. 700
Herpes Labialis ……………………………….. 701
Herpes Simplex ……………………………….. 702
Herpes Type 1/Type 2 …………………………… 703
Herpes Zoster ………………………………… 707
Hidradenitis Suppurativa ………………………… 708
High-Oxygen-Affinity Hemoglobins ………………….. 710
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Hirsutism (Dermatology) ………………………… 711
Hirsutism (Endocrinology) ……………………….. 714
Histoplasma Capsulatum ………………………… 718
Homocystinuria ………………………………. 722
Hookworm ………………………………….. 725
Horner’s Syndrome …………………………….. 727
Human Herpes 6 ………………………………. 728
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) …………. 729
Huntington’s Disease …………………………… 735
Hydatid Cyst Disease …………………………… 736
Hydrocele …………………………………… 738
Hypercalcemia ……………………………….. 738
Hypercholesterolemia …………………………… 742
Hyperemesis Gravidarum ………………………… 746
Hyperkalemia ………………………………… 747
Hypermagnesemia …………………………….. 750
Hypernatremia ……………………………….. 751
Hyperoxaluria ………………………………… 754
Hyperphosphatemia ……………………………. 757
Hypersensitive Carotid Syndrome and Syncope ………….. 759
Hypertension ………………………………… 760
Hyperthermia ………………………………… 767
Hyperthyroidism ……………………………… 770
Hypertriglyceridemia …………………………… 773
Hypocalcemia ……………………………….. 777
Hypoglycemia ……………………………….. 780
Hypogonadism in Men ………………………….. 783
Hypokalemia ………………………………… 786
Hypomagnesemia ……………………………… 789
Hyponatremia ……………………………….. 791
Hypophosphatemia ……………………………. 794
Hypopituitarism ………………………………. 796
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Hypothermia ………………………………… 799
Hypothyroidism ………………………………. 802
Ichthyosis …………………………………… 804
Idiopathic (Immune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) …….. 808
Immune Hemolytic Anemia ………………………. 810
Immunodeficiency Disorders, Congenital ……………… 818
Impetigo ……………………………………. 822
Infectious Diarrheas ……………………………. 825
Infective Endocarditis …………………………… 829
Influenza …………………………………… 833
Influenza, Avian ………………………………. 834
Inguinofemoral Hernia ………………………….. 836
Inner Ear Disorders Producing Vertigo ………………… 837
Insomnia …………………………………… 840
Interstitial Lung Diseases ………………………… 841
Intertrigo …………………………………… 845
Intervertebral Disc Disease ……………………….. 847
Intestinal Flukes ………………………………. 848
Intestinal Motor Disorders ……………………….. 850
Intracranial Hypertension ………………………… 853
Intracranial Hypotension ………………………… 854
Intraocular Infection ……………………………. 855
Intraocular Tumors …………………………….. 859
Intravascular, Non-immune Hemolytic Anemia –
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemias ………………… 860
Iron Deficiency ……………………………….. 866
Irritable Bowel Syndrome ………………………… 870
Ischemic Bowel Disease …………………………. 874
Isosporiasis …………………………………. 877
Jaw Swelling and Masses …………………………. 878
Keloids …………………………………….. 882
Laceration or Myocardial Perforation …………………. 883
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Laryngotracheitis ……………………………… 884
Laxative Abuse ……………………………….. 885
Legionella Infections ……………………………. 887
Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous ………………………… 889
Leishmaniasis, Visceral ………………………….. 891
Leptospirosis, Relapsing Fever and Rat-bite Fever ………… 893
Leukocytosis: Neutrophil ………………………… 896
Leukopenia …………………………………. 900
Leukoplakia …………………………………. 904
Lichen Planus ………………………………… 905
Liddle’s Syndrome …………………………….. 907
Liver Fluke Infections …………………………… 907
Liver Flukes …………………………………. 909
Liver Transplantation …………………………… 911
Localized Scleroderma ………………………….. 915
Low-Oxygen-Affinity Hemoglobins ………………….. 917
Lung Abscess ………………………………… 918
Lung Cancer …………………………………. 921
Lung Fluke ………………………………….. 925
Lyme Disease ………………………………… 927
Lymphadenitis and Lymphangitis …………………… 930
Lymphomas …………………………………. 932
Lysosomal Diseases ……………………………. 937
Magnesium Deficiency ………………………….. 940
Malaria …………………………………….. 942
Malignant Tumors of The Liver …………………….. 947
Marasmus ………………………………….. 949
Marfan’s Syndrome …………………………….. 952
Measles ……………………………………. 954
Mediastinal Masses …………………………….. 957
Megacolon ………………………………….. 960
Melanoma ………………………………….. 964
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Menopause …………………………………. 967
Menstrual Cycle Disorders for the Generalist ……………. 970
Metabolic Acidosis …………………………….. 973
Metabolic Alkalosis …………………………….. 977
Methemoglobinemia …………………………… 980
Migraine Headache …………………………….. 982
Miliaria ……………………………………. 984
Mineralocorticoid Disorders ………………………. 986
Miscellaneous Intestinal Protozoa …………………… 989
Mitral Insufficiency (MR) ………………………… 990
Mitral Stenosis (MS) ……………………………. 993
Mitral Valve Prolapse ……………………………. 996
Molluscum Contagiosum ………………………… 997
Motor Neuron Diseases ………………………….. 998
Mucopolysaccharidoses ………………………… 1000
Mucormycosis ………………………………. 1004
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (MAT) …………………. 1007
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 1 ……………………. 1008
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2 ……………………. 1012
Multiple Sclerosis …………………………….. 1016
Mumps ……………………………………. 1017
Muscular Dystrophies ………………………….. 1020
Musculoskeletal Problems ……………………….. 1021
Myasthenia Gravis …………………………….. 1025
Myasthenic (Lambert-Eaton) Syndrome ………………. 1027
Myelodysplastic Syndrome ………………………. 1028
Myeloma and Gammopathies …………………….. 1033
Myeloproliferative Disorders ……………………… 1037
Myoclonus …………………………………. 1039
Narcolepsy …………………………………. 1040
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus …………………… 1042
Neurofibromatosis ……………………………. 1043
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Nevi and Pigmented Lesions ……………………… 1047
Niacin Deficiency …………………………….. 1050
Nocardiosis …………………………………. 1051
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease …………………… 1053
Nongranulomatous Systemic Vasculitis ………………. 1056
Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers: Basal Cell Carcinoma ………. 1060
Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers: Squamous Cell Carcinoma …… 1063
Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs ……………… 1066
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections …………….. 1069
Obesity ……………………………………. 1071
Obstructive Sleep Apnea ………………………… 1075
Occupational Pulmonary Disease ………………….. 1078
Onychomycosis – Tinea Unguium ………………….. 1083
Oral Cancer ………………………………… 1085
Oral Lichen Planus ……………………………. 1086
Orbital Cellulitis ……………………………… 1087
Orbital Tumors ………………………………. 1088
Orchitis and Epididymitis ……………………….. 1089
Osteoarthritis ……………………………….. 1092
Osteogenesis Imperfecta ………………………… 1096
Osteomalacia and Rickets ……………………….. 1099
Osteomyelitis ……………………………….. 1103
Osteonecrosis ……………………………….. 1105
Osteoporosis ………………………………… 1108
Other Cardiomyopathies ………………………… 1112
Other Clotting Factor Deficiencies ………………….. 1114
Otitis Externa ……………………………….. 1118
Otitis Media ………………………………… 1120
Paget Disease ……………………………….. 1122
Pain Syndromes ……………………………… 1124
Pancreatic Cancer …………………………….. 1125
Pancreatic Cysts ……………………………… 1128
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Papillary Muscle Dysfunction and Rupture …………….. 1130
Paracoccidioidomycosis ………………………… 1132
Parainfluenza ……………………………….. 1134
Paralytic Poliomyelitis ………………………….. 1136
Parkinson’s Disease and Parkinsonism ……………….. 1137
Paronychia …………………………………. 1139
Parvovirus B19 ………………………………. 1140
Patent Ductus Arteriosus ………………………… 1142
Pediculosis …………………………………. 1144
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ……………………… 1145
Pemphigus Vulgaris and Pemphigus Foliaceus ………….. 1149
Peptic Ulcer Disease …………………………… 1151
Pericardial Tamponade …………………………. 1154
Peripheral Neuropathies ………………………… 1155
Perirectal Abscesses and Fistulas …………………… 1157
Peritoneal Tumors …………………………….. 1159
Peritonitis ………………………………….. 1161
Persistent Vegetative State ……………………….. 1163
Pharyngitis …………………………………. 1164
Pheochromocytoma …………………………… 1165
Phimosis and Paraphimosis ………………………. 1169
Phosphate Deficiency ………………………….. 1171
Photosensitivity ……………………………… 1172
Pituitary Tumors ……………………………… 1174
Pityriasis Rosea ………………………………. 1177
Pleural Diseases: Effusion/Empyema ………………… 1178
Pleural Tumors ………………………………. 1183
Pneumothorax ………………………………. 1186
Polymyositis and Related Disorders …………………. 1189
Porphyria, Acute ……………………………… 1193
Portal Hypertensive Bleeding ……………………… 1195
Postconcussion Syndrome or Postconcussive Syndrome ……. 1198
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Preeclamptic Liver Disease/HELLP …………………. 1199
Pregnancy Complications for the Internist …………….. 1201
Pressure Ulcers ………………………………. 1204
Priapism …………………………………… 1205
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis ………………………… 1209
Primary Hyperparathyroidism …………………….. 1211
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis ……………………. 1214
Prion Disorders (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) ……………. 1217
Prolactinoma and Galactorrhea ……………………. 1219
Prostate Cancer………………………………. 1222
Prostatitis ………………………………….. 1225
Protein-Losing Enteropathy ………………………. 1227
Pruritus …………………………………… 1228
Pseudohypoaldosteronism ………………………. 1230
Pseudomonas Infections ………………………… 1231
Psittacosis ………………………………….. 1234
Psoriasis …………………………………… 1236
Pulmonary Embolism ………………………….. 1240
Pulmonary Hypertension ……………………….. 1244
Pulmonary Stenosis (PS) ………………………… 1249
Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency (PI)………………….. 1250
Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolic Disorders ……………. 1252
Pyogenic Granuloma …………………………… 1256
Pyogenic Liver Abscess …………………………. 1257
Pyridoxine Deficiency ………………………….. 1258
Rabies ……………………………………. 1259
Radiation Enteritis and Colitis …………………….. 1262
Raynaud’s Syndrome …………………………… 1265
Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis ……………………. 1269
Red Cell Enzymes …………………………….. 1270
Refractive Disorders (Ametropias) ………………….. 1272
Renal Artery Stenosis …………………………… 1277
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Renal Calculi ………………………………… 1280
Renal Glucosuria ……………………………… 1284
Renal Masses and Tumors ……………………….. 1285
Renal Osteodystrophy ………………………….. 1289
Renal Vein Thrombosis …………………………. 1292
Repaired Congenital Heart Disease …………………. 1294
Restless Legs Syndrome …………………………. 1295
Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment ……………….. 1296
Rheumatoid Arthritis ………………………….. 1299
Rhinitis ……………………………………. 1303
Rhinovirus …………………………………. 1306
Riboflavin Deficiency ………………………….. 1307
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ……………………. 1308
Rosacea …………………………………… 1311
Rotor Syndrome ……………………………… 1312
RSV/Respiratory Syncytial Virus …………………… 1313
Rubella ……………………………………. 1314
Salmonella Infections Other than Gastroenteritis ………… 1316
Sarcoidosis …………………………………. 1319
Scabies ……………………………………. 1322
Schistosomiasis ……………………………… 1324
Scleroderma ………………………………… 1328
Seborrheic Dermatitis ………………………….. 1331
Seborrheic Keratosis …………………………… 1332
Selenium Deficiency …………………………… 1333
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome …………………. 1333
Sex Differentiation Disorders ……………………… 1335
Shock …………………………………….. 1339
Short Bowel Syndrome …………………………. 1343
Sickle Cell Syndromes ………………………….. 1345
Sigmoid Volvulus …………………………….. 1348
Sinoatrial Block ………………………………. 1349
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Sinusitis …………………………………… 1351
Small Bowel Tumors …………………………… 1356
Spermatocele ……………………………….. 1359
Spine & Spinal Cord Injury ……………………….. 1360
Spondyloarthropathies …………………………. 1361
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis ………………….. 1364
Sporotrichosis ……………………………….. 1368
Staphylococcal Infections ……………………….. 1370
Stasis Dermatitis ……………………………… 1375
Status Epilepticus …………………………….. 1376
Strabismus …………………………………. 1377
Streptococcal Infections ………………………… 1380
Strongyloidiasis ……………………………… 1385
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) ………………….. 1388
Sunburn …………………………………… 1390
Superficial Thrombophlebitis …………………….. 1391
Syncope …………………………………… 1393
Syphilis ……………………………………. 1394
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ……………………. 1399
Takayasu Arteritis …………………………….. 1403
Tapeworm Infections ………………………….. 1404
Tardive Dyskinesia ……………………………. 1406
Tension-Type Headache ………………………… 1408
Testis Tumors ……………………………….. 1409
Tetanus ……………………………………. 1412
Thalassemia ………………………………… 1414
Thiamine Deficiency …………………………… 1418
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm ……………………….. 1419
Thrombophilia ………………………………. 1421
Thyroid Nodules and Cancer ……………………… 1426
Tics ……………………………………… 1429
Tinea Capitis ………………………………… 1430
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Tinea Cruris/Corporis/Pedis ……………………… 1431
Torsion of Appendix Testis ……………………….. 1433
Torsion Of Testis And Spermatic Cord ……………….. 1434
Torticollis ………………………………….. 1435
Tourette Syndrome ……………………………. 1436
Toxoplasmosis ………………………………. 1437
Transfusion Reactions ………………………….. 1439
Transient Ischemic Attacks ………………………. 1443
Trichinosis …………………………………. 1444
Trichuriasis …………………………………. 1446
Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency (TR) ………………….. 1448
Tricuspid Valve Stenosis (TS) ……………………… 1450
Trousseau Syndrome …………………………… 1452
Trypanosomiasis, African ……………………….. 1454
Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas’ Disease) ………….. 1457
Tuberculosis ………………………………… 1459
Tubulointerstitial Renal Disease ……………………. 1462
Tumors of Paratesticular and Spermatic Cord Structures ……. 1470
Tumors, Intracranial …………………………… 1470
Tumors, Spinal ………………………………. 1472
Typhus Fevers ……………………………….. 1473
Ulcerative Colitis ……………………………… 1477
Unstable Hemoglobins …………………………. 1481
Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction …………………… 1484
Urethritis ………………………………….. 1488
Urinary Incontinence ………………………….. 1491
Urticaria and Angioedema (Dermatology) …………….. 1495
Urticaria and Angioedema (Rheumatology) ……………. 1498
Uveitis ……………………………………. 1502
Vaginitis …………………………………… 1506
Valvular Heart Disease Aortic Stenosis (AS)…………….. 1510
Valvular Injury ………………………………. 1513
Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine
Varicella-Zoster………………………………. 1514
Varicocele ………………………………….. 1516
Varicose Veins ……………………………….. 1517
Vascular Disease of Spinal Cord ……………………. 1519
Ventilator Management in the ICU ………………….. 1520
Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) and Sudden Death …………. 1524
Ventricular Premature Complexes ………………….. 1526
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) ……………………. 1527
Ventricular Tachycardia …………………………. 1528
Viral Arthritis ……………………………….. 1531
Visceral Larva Migrans …………………………. 1534
Vitamin A Deficiency …………………………… 1535
Vitamin C Deficiency ………………………….. 1536
Vitamin E Deficiency …………………………… 1537
Vitamin K Deficiency …………………………… 1538
Vitiligo ……………………………………. 1539
Volume Depletion and Edema …………………….. 1542
Von Willebrand Disease …………………………. 1546
Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia …………………. 1548
Warts …………………………………….. 1549
Whipple’s Disease …………………………….. 1552
Wilson’s Disease ……………………………… 1554
X-linked Hypophosphatemia ……………………… 1557
Zinc Deficiency ………………………………. 1558
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome ………………………. 1559

Notice on Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine

Because of the dynamic nature of medical practice and drug selection and dosage, users are advised that decisions regarding drug therapy must be based on the independent judgment of the clinician, changing information about a drug (e.g., as reflected in the literature and manufacturer’s most current product information), and changing medical practices. While great care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information presented, users are advised that the authors, editors, contributors, and publisher make no warranty, express or implied, with respect to, and are not responsible for, the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the information contained in this publication, nor for any errors, omissions, or the application of this information, nor for any consequences arising therefrom. Users are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein with other sources deemed authoritative.Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine

Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the treating physician, relying on experience and knowledge of the patient, to determine dosages and the best treatment for the patient. Therefore, the author(s), editors, contributors, and the publisher make no warranty, express or implied, and shall have no liability to any person or entity with regard to claims, loss, or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly, by the use of information contained in this publication. Further, the author(s), editors, contributors, and the publisher are not responsible for misuse of any of the information provided in this publication, for negligence by the user, or for any typographical errors.

Preface: Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine

Internal Medicine is designed to provide the busy clinician with precisely the information needed where and when it is needed. The Associate Editors and contributors are internationally recognized authorities, and they have organized the content specifically so as to convey the essentials necessary for diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management, treatment and follow-up. Many topics start with a “What To Do First” heading which brings the collective experience and guidance of top experts to bear on the “up front” considerations the clinician must face. We are excited about Internal Medicine and hope you share our view that it is an essential resource, particularly in our current era of shortened physician-patient encounters and the need for rapid clinical decision-making. Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine

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    Review – Pocket Clinicians: Internal Medicine

    “The book is for busy clinicians, with information where and when it is needed…A tremendous amount of information in the lists under each section.” Doody’s Review Service

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