Aggregates in Concrete by Mark Alexander PDF
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Table of Contents
Description of Aggregates in Concrete by Mark Alexander PDF
After an introduction defining the purpose and role of aggregates in concrete, the authors present an overview of aggregate sources and production techniques, followed by a detailed study of their physical, mechanical and chemical properties. This knowledge is then applied to the use of aggregates in both plastic and hardened concretes, and in the overall mix design. Special aggregates and their applications are discussed in detail, as are the current main specifications, standards and tests.
1. Introduction —
2. Natural aggregate sources and production —
3. Properties and characterization of aggregates —
4. Aggregates in plastic concrete —
5. Aggregates in hardened concrete : physical and mechanical properties —
6. Aggregates in hardened concrete : durability and transport properties —
7. Special aggregates and special concretes —
8. Standards for aggregates.
Preface Aggregates in Concrete by Mark Alexander PDF
Cementitious materials are certainly the oldest manufactured materials of
construction, their use going back at least 9000 years. Today, portland
cement concrete is the most widely used construction material worldwide,
its production far outstripping that of asphalt, timber, steel or other building
materials. Indeed, it is second only to water as the most widely used material
of any type. Since concrete aggregates typically make up about 70 per cent
of the mass of concrete, they are clearly a vitally important ingredient for
two main reasons:
1 Their properties must affect to a considerable degree the properties of
the concrete; and
2 The vast quantities of aggregates used in concrete production have a
significant environmental impact.
In spite of their importance, however, aggregates tend very much to play
‘second fiddle’ to the other principal ingredient of modern concrete, namely
portland cement. Most concrete research over the past decades has focused
on the binder phase (i.e. the portland cement and the supplementary cementitious materials and chemical admixtures that are commonly combined
with it). This is, perhaps, understandable, since it is largely through the
intelligent manipulation (or ‘engineering’) of the binder that we can now
‘tailor-make’ concretes with such a wide range of properties, such as ultrahigh strength concretes or self-compacting concretes. However, it must be
remembered that even these very high performance concretes would not be
possible without an intelligent selection of their aggregates as well.
What aggregate research there is has tended to focus either on aggregates
which are chemically reactive with portland cement, such as those involved
in alkali-aggregate reactions, or on aggregates for special concretes (low
density concretes, concretes for radiation shielding, etc.). These aggregates,
while important, make up only a small fraction of modern concrete production. Indeed, it is still commonly assumed that aggregates are essentially
an inert component of concrete, used primarily as an economical filler and
About the Author
Mark Alexander is Professor of Civil Engineering in the University of Cape Town. He holds BSc (Eng), MSc (Eng), and PhD degrees from the University of the Witwatersrand. His teaching and research interests are in cement and concrete technology, with experience in materials and application to design and construction. He head the Concrete Materials Research Group at UCT, where extensive work is being done on understanding problems of concrete durability. He has published extensively both in South Africa and abroad. He frequently acts as a specialist consultant to industry and the profession on concrete materials problems.
Sidney Mindess is Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of British Columbia, where he has taught since 1969. His teaching and research interests are primarily in cement and concrete technology, with a particular interest in fibre reinforced concrete and the behaviour of concrete under impact loading. He has published extensively, and is engaged in consulting on construction.